Flashcards in Speech Science Exam1 Deck (63):
The vocal tract
incl the air filled areas of the pharynx, mouth, & nose
when the organs in the vocal tract move
the shape of the vocal tract is altered => form various sounds
What is the larynx?
between the trachea and the hyoid bone (the latter is a part of the larynx)
Vocal folds are ______ during normal breathing
The glottis is ______
glottis: space between the true vocal folds (variable)
- paired folds that meet to close the glottis
Each vocal fold consists of ...
muscle (thyroarytenoid) and vocal ligament
the thyroarytenoid muscle has ____ and _____ parts
The thyroarytenoid muscle part that vibrates is ____
the (internal) part; is the vocalis muscle that can vibrate
the external thyroarytenoids - purpose; function
pull arytenoids forward and rotate them
the vocalis regulates contraction of the vocal folds; tensor
during normal breathing, the folds are
when adducted (but not completely closed), the folds can vibrate causing small pulses of air that is perceived as voicing (i.e., the glottal buzz)
what is fundamental frequency (f0)?
rate of vocal fold vibration (measured in Hz; cycles per second (cps is same as Hz))
what is one glottal cycle?
the equivalent of an opening and closing of the glottis
What are factors that affect the glottal cycle? 5
1. mechanical coupling stiffness: strength of the connection between upper and lower portions of
2. stiffness: degree of longitudinal tension of vocalis muscle
3. mass: thickness of the vocalis muscle
4. viscous forces: dissipation of force applied to tissue
5. Bernoulli force: drop in pressure at medial edge of vocal folds
What maturational changes affect the vocal folds?
F0 of men and women drops over time, due to increased length of vocal folds
Posterior Cricoarytenoid function and location
runs from the posterior surface of the cricoid cartilage to muscular processes of the arytenoids; the only intrinsic laryngeal muscle whose contraction abducts (opens) the vocal folds
What are the interarytenoid muscles?
both contribute to glottal closure
• the transverse arytenoids (TA) and the oblique arytenoids (OA)
Transverse arytenoid function and location
from postero-lateral margin of arytenoid to same region of contralateral member; adducts arytenoids
Oblique arytenoid function and location
posterior surface and lateral margin of arytenoid to apex of contralateral member; adductor (draws apices of arytenoids together)
Lateral Cricoarytenoid function and location
adductor (glottal closure)
• laterally, from superior border of arch of cricoid cartilage to muscular process of arytenoids
• adductor; closes and tenses vocal folds
Cricothyroid function and location
• from antero-lateral aspect of arch of cricoid to inferior cornu and caudal margin of thyroid
• pulls thyroid forward and elevates arch of cricoid => regulates pitch by tensing or lengthening
the vocal folds
What are the important extrinsic laryngeal muscles?
Sternohyoid: pulls the hyoid down => active mechanism for pitch lowering; runs from sternum to hyoid bone
• Cricothyroid: relaxes=>passive mechanism for pitch lowering
What are the parts and function of the respiratory system?
Parts: trachea, lungs, rib cage, abdomen (plus the passageways through which the air travels)
Serves as an “air pump” in speech production
What are egressive & ingressive sounds?
Egressive: associated with air flowing out; expiration (English sounds are generally egressive)
Ingressive: associated with inflowing air
What are the steps in respiration?
inspiration with increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity
air released past vocal cords enabling production of sound
What are the 3 regions of speech?
Respiratory System: air source (power) - hiss
Laryngeal System: sound source (vocal cord vibration)- glottal buzz
Supralaryngeal System: sound filter (above the larynx) - resonance/articulation
Where is the supralaryngeal system?
area above the larynx, contributing to speech sounds; shaping allows you to produce different sounds
What is the oral radiation of sound?
the movement of sound through the oral cavity (can be combined with nasal, e.g. both oral and nasal radiation of sound)
What is the nasal radiation of sound?
the movement of sound through the nasal cavity (can be combined with oral, e.g. both oral and nasal radiation of sound)
What controls the nasal/oral radiation of sound?
the velum/velopharyngeal port; if velum is raised, the nasal cavity is closed, oral sound
What is the velopharynx?
the velum & pharyngeal walls
Waht is the velopharyngeal port?
opening btw the oral-pharyngeal and nasal cavities
What is the uvula?
the pendulous tip at the end of the velum
What is the hard palate?
bony "roof of the mouth"
What is the soft palate?
What is the jaw/mandible?
the bone which inserts into the temporal bone at the temporomandibular joint
Which lip moves more? What are they important for?
the lower lip moves more, important for rounding
What is the alveolar ridge?
the point behind the teeth, made for many English consonants
What is the tongue? What are the parts of the tongue? 5
it is a muscular mass; body of the tongue (bulk); tip/apex, the blade (the surface area behind the tip); the dorsum (back of the tongue); root (part behind the dorsal region
If the velum is elevate you expect to see a ___ (type sound).
What is included in the respiratory system?
the air source (air pump) in speech production; trachea, lungs, rib cage, abdomen (plus the passageways through which the air travels)
What is the thorax?
the part of the body btw neck and abdomen (sep from latter by the diaphragm); thoracic cavity barrel-shaped cavity that ctns the lungs
What is the diaphragm?
a dome shaped muscle btw thoracic and abdominal cavities whose contraction incr the volume of the thoracic cavity (flattens when contract)
What are the intercostal muscles? What are the two sets and what are their purpose?
the muscles in between the ribs (connect the ribs) (the internal intercostals: contract for forced expiration; mostly lower ribs) external intercostals (contract for extra forced inspiration by elevating the ribs)
What is tidal volume (TV)?
The volume of air inhaled and exhaled during a cycle of respiration (varies based on age, gender, and level of physical exertion)
What is inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)?
volume of air that can be inhaled above tidal volume (TV)
What is expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
volume of air that can be exhaled after tidal volume (TV)
What is residual volume (RV)?
volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration (cannot be voluntarily expelled)
what is vital capacity (VC)?
vol of air that can be exhaled after maximum of inhalation (IRV + TV + ERV)
what is functional residual capacity (FRC)?
vol of air remaining in lungs and airways at the end-expiratory level (ERV +RV)
what is the total lung capacity (TLC)?
total amt of air lungs can hold (IRV + TV + ERV + RV)
What is the resting expiratory level? How does it work? 5 bullets
not a vol or capacity; equilibrium in the respiratory system; natural tendency of the lungs to collapse balanced by natural tendency of throrax to expand; resting expiratory level about 35-40% of vital capacity; 60-65% more air above resting expiratory level can be inhaled to reach maximum lung capacity
what is boyle's law?
volume and pressure are inversely related (given constant temperature); if given the chance unequal pressures equalize; incr vol (like expaning chest/lungs) -> decr press; air rushes in to equalize negative pressure when chest is expanded
What is quiet breathing?
life breathing; usually (not always) automatic
What is speech breathing?
more complex breathing integrated w/ linguistic functions (and your needs as a communicator)
what is the degree of automaticity? for speech breathing vs. quiet breathing
quiet breathing typically more automatic and under more reflexive control than speech breathing
What is the air vol inhaled per cycle? speech v. quiet breathing
all other things being equal, speech breathing typically reqs more air intake; for speech breathing, diaphragm and intercostals augmented by other muscles; in general, about 2x as much air for speech breathing than quiet breathing (10% VC for quiet breathing and 20-25% VC per utterance for speech)
What is the ratio of time for inhalation/exhalation? (speech v. quiet breathing)
quiet breathing about 40% inhalation, 60% exhalation (ea breath about 2 secs); speech breathing about 10% inhalation, 90% exhalation; each breath could be up to 20-25 sec
What is the location of air intake? speech v. quiet breathing
quiet breathing for the most part is thru the nose; speech breathing involves the oral cavity
What is muscle activity for exhalation? quiet v. speech breathing
quiet: passive forces to promote exhalation during quiet breathing; relaxing inspiratory muscles, elastic recoil; detorque; gravity; during speech: inspiratory and expiratory at least minimally active; exhalation for speech is more active; ctrl necessary pressures more than in quiet breathing; chest wall shape: for speech breathing abdomen small; rib cage larger than quiet breathing
What are the linguistic influences on speech breathing? 5
timed inspirations for naturally occurring in linguistic messages; complexity of speaking task; intended loudness; type of phoneme; whispering
What is minimum sampling rate for recording voice?
up to at least 44 kHz (the human ear can only resolve 20kHz)