Flashcards in Language Disorders - ALL Deck (229):
In the DSMV, Specific Language Impairment is replaced with ______.
Developmental Language Disorder (DLD)
In the DSMV, Mental Retardation is replaced with _______.
What are the 3 types of DLD?
1 Language impairment on its own2 LD is part of bigger picture with print and literacy3 Lang learning disorder as part of something else (medical, cognitive)
What are the key diagnostic features of a language disorder? 4 Which one is most important?
syntax, word learning, verbs, semantics; SYNTAX
What is the most common finding in studies of neural anatomy and DLD?
atypical and asymmetry;
What is the most common finding in studies of neural function and DLD?
more focused memory
Is DLD caused by biology or environment?
genetics definitely plays a role
How does linguistic environment play into language disorders?
it doesn't isolate on its own, but you need an enriched environment
How does dual language or multi-language environments affect DLD?
it doesn't, should force mothers to model a language they can't model properly (if they are better in Vietnamese, they should use that!)
Do clients diagnoses change over time?
yes, which makes you wonder if language disorders are all part of the same specturm
_____ uses information processing, memory, and learning. SLP may cause actual changes in brain structures.
Why are changes in the brain of the client important to us? 2
1 if it is a just a beh, it may be compensatory and still reformulation of existing patterns2 brain-based changes leads client toward functional normalcy
Changes in the brain result from ______ and ____.
carefully manipulating the environment; child engagement in activity
Those with neurodevelopmental disorders (such as Autism) have more ____ ____.
How do brains develop?
back to front (sensory to cognition/execution)left to right (language to processing skills)
What are ways of increasing receptive language through preprocessing input? 4
1 attending to lang target w/ separating from connected speech2 associate items in the environment3 process phonetic units of a word4 focus on a small number of target words & repeat within and across contexts
What are ways of increasing receptive language through adapting input?
multi-sensory input through: pair with visual representation
What are two reasons that the child is not talking? 2
1 trouble parsing the words2 trouble mapping words to environmental info
What is needed for expressive language to help with word retrieval/production? 3
1 help them find the salient words2 use least to most prompting (and intentional levels of support)3 teach word combinations to use early semantic relations (description, recurrence, location, request+4 words)
Since TD kids form _____, which are help organize and become more elaborate with new experiences, what do we need to do with kids with NDD. 3
schemas; be intentional, provide a schedule, use key words (first, next), and explain strategies.
What are the criteria for SLI? 2
1 lang ability at least 1.25 s.d. below mean2 non verbal IQ of 85 or above (WNL)
What are the characteristics of ch w/ SLI? 5
1 diff w/ non-word repetition2 grammatical/inflectional morphemes3 delayed acquisition of words and reduced vocab, poorer fast mapping4 diff producing weak syllables5 diff processing non-linguistic stimuli
Why has SLI been discontinued?
there was a high association with dyslexia and neurological issues like ADHD
What does dialogic mean?
back and forth, dialogue based
What is the PLAI?
Preschool Lang Assessment Instrument, straight forward questions to inferential questions with a judgement scale for referencing answers
What did Desmarais et al. 2013 do?
replicate a study that had only been done once and had few similar; used kids diagnosed with SLI and tested their receptive language through referential and comprehension questions
Why were the results of Desmarais et al. 2013 inconclusive? 2
1 they did not use a control group2 their two probe books were unequal
What did Yoder et al. (2011) do?
tested to see if MLU could predict success with Milieu Language Therapy (MLT) with Broad Target Recasts (BTR)
What did Yoder et al. (2011) find?
growth was greater for MLT with lower MLUs, but there was less growth for higher MLUs in both Tx. 74% showed growth with either treatment. IQ did not affect results
What did van Kleeck et al. (2010) do?
a meta analysis of research into whether Telegraphic Input (TI) is helpful in any cases or if Grammatical input (GI) is always preferable.
What did van Kleeck et al. (2010) find? 3
1. There was not enough research2 The research was faulty3. expert opinion is divided; our book authors argue in favor of GI
What are the main purposes of assessment? 5
1 identification2 eligibility3 goal setting4 prognosis5 progress with an intervention
What are types of assessment models? 3
1 Deficit/Discrepancy Models2 Categorical Models3 System Models
___ is an assessment model based on norming samples which determine the difference between intellectual ability and achievement (IQ is not predicative of who has a lang learning disability)
_____ is an assessment model based on etiology. (we don't know the cause all the time, frequent overlap; variation in individual profiles)
_____ is an assessment model based on a multidimensional/synergistic perspective and language components are integrated. (deals with what the child CAN and CAN'T do)
____ is an assessment which is based on population norming sample.
___ is an assessment which is based on an absolute standard.
Criterion referenced test can be either ____ or ___ depending on the administration guidelines.
___ is a type of informal test which gather information about their conversation.
____ is a type of assessment which uses the principle test, teach, retest.
Norm referenced standardized test refer to ___ standing in relation to the group norms (standard deviation from the norm/mean).
Criterion-referenced standardized test refer to ___ score.
Norm referenced tests yield ___ which measure a broad domain.
Criterion referenced test yields ___ which measures a specific skills.
___ rankings are another means of expressing standardized scores, which compares 100% of the population.
And informal test can never give ____ information.
What do you assess? big 3
1 form2 content3 use(also, fluency, voice, hearing, OME, behavior comments + play skills)
What goes into creation of an assessment plan? 4
1 consider your goal2 look at options3 gather materials4 prepare for eveything
What do you do during an assessment? 2
1 follow directions as specifically as possible2 write down everything; as specifically as possible (including wrong answers)
What are the two terms that come up a lot in Betz et al. (2013)? What do they mean?
sensitivity - how accurate at test is at IDing that a child has a disorderspecificity - how accurate is a test at IDing the children who do not have a disorder
What did Betz et al. find about the criteria for choosing which test to administer?
Publication year was the only variable that people used for choosing a test; based on name recognition; test can become dated and norming sample could be based on OLD population norms
What do you need in addition to a norm-referenced test? 2
Criterion testsLanguage samples (specific ex of using target forms; many tasks - explain, story retell, argue!)
What is the next step after the assessment? 2
Integrate with the big picture (case history, bg, parent/teacher/family member/friend)If the pieces don't fit, find out why!!!
What were the main points of McCauley & Swisher (1984)? 4
1 age equivalencies as test scores2 be aware of the difference btw scores needed to be significant3 don't let an individual test item be indicative of a deficit or the need for a goal4 don't use multiple testing to measure progress
When you report results of a test, what MUST you do?
give a definition of what the score means
When you report results on a norm-referenced test outside it's norming sample, what must you do?
explain that it is just used for information!
What should go into a language testing plan? 5
1 administer a norm-referenced, standardized test (determine eligibility status)2. complete a language sample to determine consistency of strengths and errors3. administer a criterion-referenced test for baseline4 integrate 1-3 to formulate targets5 repeat 3 after a (short) time in therapy to assess change, or 1-3 after a longer time
Can you share test content questions?
no, we must protect the content. write a similar/parallel but not exact question (use the same preposition).
What are the two general learning theories?
1 connectionism (statistical learning)2 emergentism/dynamic systems
What are three language specific language learning theories?
surface hypothesiscompetition modelbootstrapping
___ defines learning as the process of statistically evaluating and integrating environmental input for optimal functioning (if it happens more often, i'll pay attention to it)
___ defines learning as driven by input, with cues from strength, reliability, and frequency.
___ defines learning as the interaction between components of development (forces that allow for learning and change)
What does the Competition model define as prompts from the environment (accuracy & happens often)? 2 big 2 underneath
strength cues (reliability cues and frequency cues)capacity (starts at a certain level then grows)
What are the two big categories of forces for learning and change according to Dynamic systems?
internal & external
___ defines learning as the result of an interaction of a learner's capacity and environmental factors. (Following a developmental path of least resistance)
What are environmental language learning influences? 3
1 acoustic (t.v., parents, siblings)2 linguistic (reliable, quality of parents, sibs and t.v. input)3 social input (what is it used for and how much - cuing freq)
What are internal language learning influences? 5
1 attention2 processing3 physical mechanisms (hearing, oral mech)4 emotional state5 social conceptions
What happens in language deficits according to emergentism?
a breakdown in competence or performance between the child's system and environment
____ is that language features with relatively weak phonetic salience (acoustically) will be more difficult to learn and that language features with relatively complex acoustic properties will be more difficult to produce.
___ is when you put emphasis on the salient idea (understanding "bring the book to me" means "go get the book").
What is meant by the competition model?
features in language compete to gain input time (related to learner's capacity to process linguistic info)
____ is when children hear cues relevant to language in speech from pauses, sound duration and higher pitches.
____ is when children hear cues relevant to language in speech from subject verb objects and morphemes as frames.
How do parents use pause? Speech sound duration? Higher fund freq?
- longer at clause/phrase boundaries- longer at linguistic boundaries (phrase ending)- helps with attention
What are difficulties in working with bilingual clients? 4
1. defining bilingual2. timing of bilingualism & norming processes in second language acquisition3. ethics in working with bilinguals (DIFFERENCE vs. DISORDER)4 working with an interpreter is different
If you re monolingual, you don't have to have bilingual clients. T/F
What do we need from an interpreter? 5
1 can process and use both languages (written and spoken)2 explain the culture3 understand and explain discipline-specific material4 meet before to review targets5 check that you are on the right path before session
What do you need to provide to an interpreter? 2
1 explain any rules2 during the session, do not talk to the interpreter, talk to the client, eye-to-eye
What are cues to a language disorder? 9
1 reliance on gestures (not with Autism)2 difficulty paying attention/following directions3 frequent repetition4 less precise vocabulary5 family history6 parents concerned7 different than siblings8 client frustration9 deficits in BOTH languages
How do you determine language dominance? 2 suggestions
1 observe child in many settings to see language of choice2 use a structured questionnaires
What are some questionnaires for determining language dominance? 8
Assessment Instrument for Multicultural Clients2 Basic Inventory of Natural Language3 Bilingual Language Proficiency Questionnaire4 Bilingual Syntax Measure5 Home Bilingual Usage Estimate6 Oral Language Evaluation7 Oral Language Dominance8 Teacher Language Observation Report
How does the Competition model apply to language acquisition?
since frequency cues strength; if there's a match that will cause transference, if there's a difference that will cause an interference
What if you don't speak the clients language? 3
1 serve directly w/ a paraprofessional (interpreter)2 serve indirectly w/ a teacher/parent3 serve indirectly w/ a peers
When do you begin therapy in English? 3
1 client's English skills are at the same level as L12 there is a plateau in L13 client has had substantial exposure to bilingual education
Does learning 2 languages cause the language disorder? What about two dialects?
Do parents of children with CLD need to speak to their children in English only?
Can a child have a language disorder in only one language?
No, it will show up in both/any language they try to speak.
What was Restrepo and Kruth's definition of SLI? What's wrong with it?
" exhibit a significant language disorder not accounted for by neurological, sensory, or socioemotional difficulties, in the presence ofnormal nonverbal intelligence " there's often something along with it.
What are other characteristic of SLI according to Restrepo and Kruth? 5
inflectional morphology (ie: copula, past tense, third person singular), pronouns, definite articles, and sometimes plurals and phonological memory
What did Restrepo and Kruth frind out about "cross-linguistic" research in SLI?
Not much - inspires other research; which is why we got rid of SLI: DLD
What can you expect from 4 month olds? 6
1 saliva control2 eye contact w/ baby3 baby push-ups4 follow objects 180 degrees, attention shifts5 cooing6 cries of delight
What is atypical babies look like? 4
1 no squeals of delight2 no movements3 no interest in the world4 not responding to their name
What is kangeroo care?
EBP - skin to skin contact with premie babies that is helpful to their recovery - less time in the NICU
What is the SLPs role for NICU babies? 4
wait for med issues to stabilize, then1 help foster a safe and comfortable environment2 help parents understand the condition3 help families recognize alertness/receptiveness4 encourage interaction when the baby is most alert and receiving
____ is taking into consideration of the time in the NICU when calculating their age (done for 2 years post NICU).
___ are program offered to children birth to three years who have had a medical/abnormal birth.
Early Intervention Services
___ is the main part of IDEA offered for children birth to three.
Individual Family Service Plan (not as structured as IEP)
Are IFSP mandated national?
No, done by DARS, Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services in Texas
What goes into DARS' ECI? 4
1 Individualized and Interdisciplinary2 Family-centered3 Familiar settings4 Planning continuing services
What does ECI cost in Texas?
Eval is free, case mgmt is free (including translations), Medicaid covers it, and sliding scale for everyone else (cost/share)
Who is eligible for ECI?
1 medically dx2 auditory or visual impairment3 have to see an impact for developmental delay (the Battelle is the only one Texas uses)
What prelinguistic skills can we look for? 7
1 imitation2 joint attention*3 responding to no, or their name4 babbling5 gaze/pointing6 initiating*7 turn taking*
What type of state do you want to assess a baby with?
calm, alert state
What should you remember when administering the Rossetti?
ask sequential questions all at once (what words can you child say; what body parts does your child know/say)write all over the response formO = observedE = elicitR = report
___ are key for infant intervention.
What are intervention targets for babies? 3
1 Joint attention2 anticipation (turn-taking events, play, peek-a-boo, ball rolling)3 initiation
As the baby grows up, assessment includes prelinguistic communication skills and now ___.
RPMT stands for ___. What is it?
reactive prelinguistic milieu teaching (parents are the providers, respond to baby's needs and interests)
_____ is when you encourage the child to communicate, through social/environmental enticements or toys.
What are some important points for treatment of prelinguistic children? 5
1 watch for all comm and respond to it (put words in their mouth)2 help parents tell you where they can practice a skill at home (and write it down too!)3 stop prompting all the time4 use functional skills5 use the environment to your favor
What is available for communication function? 3
1 request items/attention/soothing/informaiton2 comment3 acknowledgement(etc.)
What are different ways a child communicates? 4
1 gestures2 verbal3eye contact4 AAC
What should you note when observing a child? 2
how they repair breakdownshow persistent they are
What you address in 18-36 month therapy? 4
1 play (symbolic level/ complexity-steps-characters)2 attention3 following directions4 vocab and written development
What is PMT do?
prelinguisitic milieu teaching is naturalistic in structured concepts, so that that the child has the best chance of using the comm, based on operant conditioning (give a little bit of time to allow child's turn)
What is meant by "nouns, NOT NOUNS"?
do include words that will provide some syntax, some richness, and content
____ is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are largely ___.
genetic (mostly confirmed with genetic test/marker)
What is adaptive behaviors? 5 (and more in textbook)
1 Social skills2 Practical skills3 Interpersonal social skills, self-esteem, gullibility, follow rules4 Conceptual skills (language, literacy, money time number)5 Personal care (ADL), healthcare, work safety, using money, using a phone
Why do we need to learn about adaptive behaviors?
these are good therapy targets or things related to these
What is "working memory" according to Baddeley's model? 3
1 central executive2 phonlogical loop or visuospatial sketchpad3 episodic buffer
What is central executive in working memory?
what you want to keep and what you want to get rid of. it controls the active process
What are the two methods of encoding in working memory?
phonological loop (subvocalizing and rehearsing)visuospatial sketchpad (photographic memory is extreme)
What is episodic buffer in working memory?
a work space where memories are held until they are discarded (short-term) or stored (long-term)
What goes into the capacity limit of working memory?
difficulty doing two tasks in the same domainauditory loop (2s); visuospatial sketchpad (3-5 items)
What step of working memory is the biggest for therapy?
transfer into long-term memory
_____ occurs when you make a conscious decision to direct the processing activities of the brain (e.g. using a particular strategy to accomplish a task, with consideration of effort - harder for ID, some give & take to get good results)
_____ generally has some ID with deficits in verbal processing and working memory and executive functions. Have problems with impulse control. (it's a syndrome). Treat with visual supports. Literacy deficits, hearing screenings, and assess for apraxia. Smaller brain, smaller temporal lobes, smaller cerebellar volume, different hippocampus volume, and frontal lobe volumes.
What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?
Form, less intelligibility, receptive syntax, expressive syntax
What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for content (3)?
Content later first words,some delayed vocab, gestures used to support communication
What are children with DS (down syndrome)'s profile for use (3)?
Use: delay in early social communication, good narratives, good conversation.
___ is marked by mild to moderate ID, very poor visual spatial construction and adaptive behavior deficits (motor development and no independent living).
What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?
late babblinggood grammardifficulty with grammar comprehension
What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for content (2)?
good with concrete vocabularyextreme decreases with relational concept vocab
What are children with WS (williams syndrome)'s profile for use (3)?
delay in joint attentionintegration of gaze informationpoor conversation, narratives
___ is almost always marked by ID and severity is related to gene involvment. Many meet criteria for autism, lots of otitis media, and executive functioning (sequential processing, cognitive flexibility, planning, attention).
Fragile X Syndrome
What are individuals with Fragile X Syndrome good at?
good with simultaneous processing and long-term memory
What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for form (3)?
articulation is goodauditory processing gooddecreased understand and use of syntax and morphology
What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for content (1)?
slower vocab growth/poor discours
What are children with Fra X (Fragile X syndrome)'s profile for use (4)?
poor conversationpoor theory of mindlimited sharing thoughtspoor critiquing their own work and getting info to others.
___ is serious behavior deficits replaced with socially appropriate behaviors.
Functional communication training
What are some different reasons for behavior deficits?4
1 seeking attention2 to get a tangible reward3 how it feels/sensory4 escape
Functional communication training provides a different ___ for equivalent _____. As easy or easier than old behavior!
____ is a direction.
___ is a plan for when a child will get reinforced.
___ is taking something out of the environment they want.
Every hit in the face is a TBI. T/F
What must you know to begin rehabilitation for a pt w/ a TBI?
What is the most common cause of TBI?
What are the two kinds of TBI?
closed- injury caused by mvt w/in the skull (diffuse lesions)penetrating - foreign object entering the skull (focal lesions)
CDC estimate ___ people per year suffer a TBI.
What are the most likely age groups for TBI?
0-4 (falls)15-19 (risk-taking behavior)65+ (falls)
The effects of TBI are always long lasting. T/F
___ is when changes with new learning or social demands cause the child to stop progressing (or start).
What do TBI nonverbal IQ deficits manifest as? 3
decreased processing speeddecreased attentionincreased impulsivity (a hallmark of TBI)
What effects linguistic outcomes with TBI? 2
1 whether diffuse or focal2 deficits related to age of injury
Why does age play a role in linguistic outcomes for TBI? 3
1 established skills are less vulnerable2 difficulty acquiring new skills3 younger children have poorer outcomes
What are common linguistic deficits following TBI? 5
1 discourse2 integration of semantic memory, working memory, and world knowledge3 making/understanding inference in story or speech4 narrative creation5 reading
What are targets for therapy for children with TBI? 4
1 relevancy2 organization3 memory supports4 literacy, reading comprehension
What effects do visual impairments have on language? 3
1 trouble with early joint attention2 social exchange issues (primarily pragmatic deficits)3 literacy - story - narratives
____ helps decrease age of services for hearing impairment. Recovery is based on degree and type of loss.
___ is the efficiency and effectiveness by which the CNS utilizes auditory information.
(central) Auditory Processing Disorder
When is (C)apd diagnosed?
not until 8 years old
Who diagnoses (C)apd?
What does (C)apd treatment entail?
reduce impact of environmental distractors
What changed with DSM-5 for autism?
two disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Communication Disorderand language disorders definition focuses more on structure - use disorders fall under SCD
___ is impairment with social communication and social interaction accompanied by restrictive and/or repetitive behaviors that begins in early childhood and results in reductions in functioning.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
____ is impairment with verbal and nonverbal aspects of social communication, without RRB, that manifests early in development and impedes functioning.
Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
What is the difference between ASD and SCD?
SCD doesn't have a restrictive and/or repetitive behaviors
Can ASD be used with other dxs?
Yes (i.e. ADHD, ID, etc.)
What are two major categories of older children we see?
1 severely impaired kids working on language acquisition (ID, ASD, etc.)2 ones that barely qualify for services but have difficulty with reading etc.
How do we define "older" children?
children that should have been d/c, 12+
What goes into older children intervention generally? 2
watch for assuming skills are intactand higher order therapy
What are some higher level linguistic demands? 11
1 deal with multiple teachers and styles2 reading fluency (gain information from literature)3 increase work produced4 use working memory for processing, chunking and multistep direction5 longer sustained attention6 use meta-cognition to prioritize, evaluate work7 work independently8 abstract, symbolic info mastery9 take notes10 participate in varied assessment formats11 use/understand logic and critical thinking
What areas must be addressed in older children? 5
1 receptive language (symbolic, complex)2 expressive language (complex, social)3 reading (fact and fiction)4 written language5 organization
Older kids may not be as ___ as younger and so we have to work with what we can and give them ___ to succeed.
Chunking info and better after lunch are examples of ___ factors
An older child that never wears glasses or hearing aids are examples of ____.
constraints on cognitive resources
What are the approaches of vocabulary from curriculum strengths?
1 it is of interest (relevant for them)2 it's already deigned to pull out language
What are different ways to address vocab/semantics from curriculum? 5
1 preteach2 practice retrieval3 direct instruction4 figurative meanings5 word strategies
____ is making sure the student is ready when it comes up instead of tutoring on the backside.
____ is teaching the words specifically (look it up in the dictionary, practice it in a sentence).
____ is teaching a way to learn about a word from context and use affixes to break up the word. See how all the words relate.
____ is where a word does not mean what is literally does. Must use world knowledge and context to define a word or phrase. (can also use dictionary to look up alternate meaning and archaic meanings of word)
____ is where you practice a word in different settings and with different prompts.
____ use more cognitive measure to get more learning time. (Meta-cognition) (root word strategy, use context to learn word, practice strategies for recall via games, and thinking like a writer for figurative language)
Learning strategies methodologies
What are learning strategies for syntax? 3
1 proofreading (teach strategies)2 code for clarity and style (develop your own way)3 review examples of syntax
What are the elements of pragmatics for older children? 4
1 awareness2 routines3 conversation4 peers (watching for models)
What makes older kids successful at pragmatics? 2
1 knowing when to smile2 awareness of expectations/rules (in classroom and social)
What are higher level communication for pragmatics for older kids?
negotiations and persuasion
What does working memory involves? 3
1 central executive connected with a 2 visuo-spatial sketchpad and3 phonological loop
Will bringing visuo-spatial information stress an already stressed system? 2
No, 1 there are not reduced processing capacities, or 2 the task did not stress the system enough
Why should you get a spontaneous language sample? 5
1 functional language use2 assess a variety of skills3 can use different locations, communication partners, and tasks4 reduce bias for CLD clients5 individualized for the client
What are the types of samples? 3
1 spontaneous language (play or daily routine)2 narrative sample (personal, retell, and book (wordless))3 picture descriptions (problem solving and interesting)
Why should you use a "view master" in therapy? 2
1 authentic pragmatic retell expereince2 picture hide and seek (describe picture and then click them and "hide" it to make the the client "find" it; with different levels depending on the wheel)
What is the drawback of picture description?
won't give connected speech
What are Dr. Ivey's two types of picture descriptions?
problem pictures and interesting pictures
What does form encompass with language sampling analysis? 3
morphemes, syntax, morphology
What does content encompass with language sampling analysis? 2
semantics, lexical diversity
What does use encompass with language sampling analysis? 3
communicative intentpragmatic functionpragmatic awareness
What is the IPSyn? What is it useful for?
100 utterances and child can get things on a checklist and can be used to measure change over time and different than the MLU because it shows specific skills that a child is using
What is the Narrative Assessment Protocol?
5 analyses that is useful with ages 3-5 and has connections to early literacy
What is SALT?
Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts - gives a comparison from your client to others; 2012 is most current version
What is MLU?
a morphosyntactic measure for mean length of utterance; useful way of measuring language complexity until 4-4.5
What should we beware of with morphosyntactic analysis?
1 deciding on a utterance2 inflectional cues
What should we remember about interjections? 3
1 not part of the grmmatical structure2 separate from main utterance3 classify as "interjection" and vocabulary (C HeyC don't.; or C Uh-oh C broken.
What should we remember about nouns in direct address? 3
1 when a child calls the listener by name2 must be done at the time of transcription3 indicated with a comma
What should we remember about question markers? 2
1 noted by rising intonation at the end2 not part of the utterance to analyze grammar
What should we remember about imperative interjections?
1 separate imperative sentences 2 "I got it, see?" and "Look-it, a dog" two separate utterances
What should we remember about sentence tags? 2
1 they are added at the beginning or end of a sentence2 used to start or end the utterance"over there, I think." "I see, you found it." must separate the tag from the main utterance.
What are t-units?
a dominant clause and any dependent clauses attached to it.
How do coordinating conjuntions affect t-units?
they start new ones (and, but, or) except if they are co-referential subject deletion
What are co-referential subject deletion?
When it looks like you have two clauses that are linked, but the subject is implied by shared subject ("He goes and loses" = He goes. He loses it.)
What is a t-unit analysis?
MLTU = total # of T-units/total # of words
What can t-unit analysis be used with? 3
1 written language2 spoken language3 older children (increases gradually)
When you use MLU for school aged kids, what changes?
it is MLU in words (or MLU-w) before it was morphemes; this is also known as Mean length of response or MLR
What is a normal TTR? How reliable is it?
.5 for children 3-8Not reliable for some children depending on sample size and child
What can be analyzed with semantics besides TTR? 5
1 use of context cues for meaning2 curriculum vocabulary for school aged (receptive, definitions, expressive)3 functional analysis vocabulary4 multiple meanings5 figurative language
What can be analyzed for pragmatics? 2; How many combinations are there?
+/- assertiveness+/- responsiveness (4 combinations)
How do we analyze pragmatics?
conversation analyses or criterion/standardize assesment
What are the parts of pragmatic function? 3
1 means of comunication2 persistence3 modification to partner's needs (repair strategy)
What are the most adult pragmatic skills (i.e. higher order skills)? 6
1 changes in register2 presupposition3 inference4 discourse5 negotiation6 conversation repair
What do we look at in narration? 3
1 macrostructure2 microstructure3 artful storytelling
What do we mean by macrostructure for narration? 4
1 overall maturity of narrative2 organization3 number of story grammar elements4 cohesion
What do we mean by microstructure for narration? 2
1 productivity (lexical diversity (TNW/NDW) and t-unity output)2 complexity (MLTU and proportion of complex sentences)
What goes into artful storytelling? 5
1 rich vocabulary2 episodes3 cohesion4 story climax5 varied language forms