Flashcards in Lec 11 Healthcare-Associated Infections Deck (14)
What is the definition of HCAIs?
infection that develops >= 48 hours after admission and was not present or incubating at the time of admission
What conditions predispose a patient for HCAI?
* received hospital care for 2 days in the past 90 days
* was admitted to the facility (i.e. inpatient)
* received outpatient care in the past 30 days
* received home care
* resides in a nursing home or long-term facility
What are the four most common types of HCAIs?
* urinary tract infection
* surgical site infection
* lower respiratory tract infection
What organisms are part of the "hospital gang"
What are some common examples of gram-negative MDROs (multidrug resistant organisms)?
ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamase) organisms
resistant P. aeruginosa
Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaciae
What are some common examples of gram-positive MDROs (multidrug resistant organisms)?
Vancomycin resistant enterococcus
What are the top 3 causes of HCAIs in PGH?
1. S. epidermidis
2. P. aeruginosa
3. Acinetobacter baumanii
What bodily areas are usually colonized by resistant bacteria?
axilla, arm, wrist
What is the 2nd most common nosocomial infection?
HAP (hospital acquired pneumonia)
What are the risk factors for HCAIs?
intubation, ICU setting, previous antibiotic use, major surgical procedure, underlying lung disease, advanced age, immunosuppression
What is "sedation vacation"?
reduction of morphine/sedative regimen so the patient can be extubated sooner
What is the most common nosocomial infection?
What are the major risk factors for nosocomial UTI?
* pathogenic bacteria in periurethral area
* indwelling urinary catheter