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Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (28):
1

Bacteria and archaea are

prokaryotes

2

Protozoa and fungi

eukaryotes

3

Viruses

acellular requiring a living host cell to reproduce

4

Prokaryotes

lack a membrane bound nucleus, single circular chromosome

5

Archaea

able to live in adverse environmental conditions

6

Eukaryotes

contain a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles, protozoa and fungi are microbes within this group

7

Binomial system of nomenclature

genus name followed by a species name

8

The genus and species of the bacterium must be..

italicized or underlined

9

The name of bacterium may also be written with the..

first letter of the genus capitalized and the name of the species not capitalized (ex: S.aureus)

10

Robert Hooke (1665) was..

the first to see and describe cells following the invention of microscope which lead to start of cell theory

11

Anthoni van Leeuwenhoek (1684) used..

the microscope yo view live microbes which he called "animalcules"

12

Spontaneous generation example

food left for long periods will spoil, microscope shows it crawling w/ bacteria

13

Spontaneous generation theory notes..

bacteria arise spontaneously from non living mater

14

Who rejected spontaneous generation

Louis Pasteur

15

Biogenesis

hypothesis that living matter arises only from pre existing matter, theory currrently accepted

16

Louis Pasteur (1864) demonstrated what technique

aseptic technique using swan flask

17

Aseptic technique hypothesized

microorganisms responsible for food spoilage likely came from the air not spontaneous generation

18

Fermentation

yeast that which convert sugar to alcohol in the absence of air (pasteur)

19

Pasteurization

prevent souring of milk, beer, wine which occurs when bacteria present convert sugar into vinegar you could heat the milk/beer/wine which would kill all the bacteria present and prevent spoilage

20

Germ theory of disease

belief that microorganisms are responsible for disease

21

Germ theory was developed by..

robert koch (1881)

22

Koch's postulates

used in order to prove that a specific microbe is responsible for a specific disease

23

Edward Jenner (1798) developed..

small pox vaccine bas on observation people previously infected w/ cow pox were immune to small pox

24

Paul Ehrlick (1908) developed

idea of selective toxicity

25

Selective toxicity

ability to either kill or inhibit growth of pathogenic organisms while leaving the host unharmed

26

Salvarsan

first effective anti-microbial which useful to cure syphilis w/o damaging most cells (paul ehrlick)

27

Alexander Fleming (1929) discovered

that a product of mold Penicillium chrysogenum (penicillin) was able to inhibit growth of bacteria on plates contaminated with the mold

28

What medicine did alexander fleming disco accidentally

penicillin