Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (28):
Bacteria and archaea are
Protozoa and fungi
acellular requiring a living host cell to reproduce
lack a membrane bound nucleus, single circular chromosome
able to live in adverse environmental conditions
contain a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles, protozoa and fungi are microbes within this group
Binomial system of nomenclature
genus name followed by a species name
The genus and species of the bacterium must be..
italicized or underlined
The name of bacterium may also be written with the..
first letter of the genus capitalized and the name of the species not capitalized (ex: S.aureus)
Robert Hooke (1665) was..
the first to see and describe cells following the invention of microscope which lead to start of cell theory
Anthoni van Leeuwenhoek (1684) used..
the microscope yo view live microbes which he called "animalcules"
Spontaneous generation example
food left for long periods will spoil, microscope shows it crawling w/ bacteria
Spontaneous generation theory notes..
bacteria arise spontaneously from non living mater
Who rejected spontaneous generation
hypothesis that living matter arises only from pre existing matter, theory currrently accepted
Louis Pasteur (1864) demonstrated what technique
aseptic technique using swan flask
Aseptic technique hypothesized
microorganisms responsible for food spoilage likely came from the air not spontaneous generation
yeast that which convert sugar to alcohol in the absence of air (pasteur)
prevent souring of milk, beer, wine which occurs when bacteria present convert sugar into vinegar you could heat the milk/beer/wine which would kill all the bacteria present and prevent spoilage
Germ theory of disease
belief that microorganisms are responsible for disease
Germ theory was developed by..
robert koch (1881)
used in order to prove that a specific microbe is responsible for a specific disease
Edward Jenner (1798) developed..
small pox vaccine bas on observation people previously infected w/ cow pox were immune to small pox
Paul Ehrlick (1908) developed
idea of selective toxicity
ability to either kill or inhibit growth of pathogenic organisms while leaving the host unharmed
first effective anti-microbial which useful to cure syphilis w/o damaging most cells (paul ehrlick)
Alexander Fleming (1929) discovered
that a product of mold Penicillium chrysogenum (penicillin) was able to inhibit growth of bacteria on plates contaminated with the mold