Lecture 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15 Deck (18):
1

Vaccine are either

-a suspension of a whole organisms
-portions of organisms (antigens)

2

Vaccine

stimulate an immune response w/o causing disease. immune system produces memory cells to the specific antigen

3

Why are vaccine needed

many communicable diseases can be controlled by behavioural or environmental methods

4

When vaccines methods fail..

-bacterial disease can be treated with antibiotics
-viral diseases generally cannot be cured

5

Attenuated whole agent vaccine

use weakened living microbes due to a mutation that has been introduced. most closely mimics actual infection by stimulating cell mediated and antibody mediated response

6

What type of vaccine often confers life long immunity

Attenuated whole agent vaccine

7

Risk factor for attenuated whole agent vaccines

virus or bacterium may revert back to the original pathogenic form, dangerous to immunocompromised portents and pregnant women

8

Inactive whole agent vaccines

use whole agents that have been killed. antibody mediated immunity. (rabies, flu)

9

Toxoids

inactivated toxins made from purified proteins. stimulates the antibody mediated response, usually required series of injections for full immunity because it doesn't last long (tetanus DTaP)

10

Subunit vaccine

contain purified components from viruses or bacteria. antigens likely to induce antibody mediated response

11

Pneumoshot

protects against pneumonia

12

Subunit vaccine example

hepatitis B, viral coat proteins are produced by a genetically modified yeast

13

Extremely safest vaccine ..

subunit vaccine

14

Conjugated vaccine

children immune systems don't respond to caporal polysaccharides, so antigen is combined with a protein antigen for stronger immune response

15

Conjugated vaccine example

haemophilus influenze capsule combined with diphtheria toxoid can induce immune response in 2 month old

16

Adjuvants

chemical additive that increases the immune response, improved response to vaccine (shark cartilage w/ H1N1)

17

Herd immunity

people who have not been vaccinated still have a reduced chance of contracting disease. occurs for viruses with only human reservoirs. if herd doesn't carry disease then non immunized individuals cannot get it

18

Result and problem of herd immunity

-result: many parents choose not to have their children vaccinated
-problem: most parents who make this choice have never actually seen a case of polio/ measles