Lecture 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22 Deck (30):
1

Cystitis

inflammation of bladder

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Urethritis

inflammation of urethra

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Urinary tract infection

primarily due to gram negative bacteria (opportunistic pathogen) fecal contamination with normal microbiota of small intestine. nosocomial infection after catheterization. treated with broad spectrum antibiotics

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Pyelonephritis

cystitis may progress to infection of kidneys. scar tissue forms in kidneys that can interfere with their function. treated with kidney dialysis and broad spectrum antibiotics

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Gonorrhea symptoms in males and females

(Neisseria gonorrheae) males: shows symptoms in 1 week, painful urination, pus discharge. women: asymptomatic early on. lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus affected (sterility) becomes systematic if left untreated

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Treatment and prevention of gonorrhea

treated with antibiotics, prevented by condoms and silver nitrate eyedrops for newborns

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Chlamydia trachomatis

intracellular parasite, most common STI. in males similar to gonorrhoea but milder. in females is asymptomatic. treated with broad spectrum antibiotics

8

Syphilis

caused by treponema palladium. transferred through direct contact with infected lesions. treatment only during 1st and 2nd stage with antibiotics

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Primary stage of syphilis

occurs 3 weeks post exposure. chancre forms a point of contact. painless lesion. may form I'm urethra or cervix (often noticed)

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Secondary stage of syphilis

several weeks later. lesions all over body. contain many bacteria, highly infectious. non sexual transmission possible

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Tertiary stage of syphilis

occurs several year of latency. no longer contagious or treatable.

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Gummatous syphilis

results in rubbery lesions on skin, membranes or bone

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Cardiovascular syphilis

weakening of aorta

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Neurosyphilis

central nervous system affected. dementia, seizures, partial paralysis and death

15

Genital herpes

human herpes virus 2 (can also be caused by HSV-1) results in acute phase of infection, then latent stage. virus enters nerve cells. can be transmitted when no nestles are apparent. condoms don't protect

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Symptoms of genital herpes

burning sensation, extreme irritation, painful urination. vesicles contain infectious fluid. can be reactivated later in life.

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Treatment of herpes

acyclovir blocks viral replication. only effective against active lesions

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Human papillomaviruses (HPV)

transmitted through direct contact with virues and infected lesions. often not stopped by condoms (occur outside protected area) risk of cervical cancer. vaccine available for most types associated with cancer

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

spikes enable HIV to attach to and penetrate host cell. carried enzyme reverse transcriptase. viral DNA can integrate into host cell chromosome as provirus. virus remains latent for long time. may cause active infection (new viruses produced buds out from host cell)

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Antigenic changes in HIV

HIV genome is highly susceptible to mutation. antigen change: helps virus invade immune system

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HIV-1

most common HIV virus worldwide

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HIV-2

found in western Africa, slower profession of disease

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Category A of HIV

often asymptomatic, may cause flu like symptoms, swollen lymph nodes. low viral load in blood, high Th cells

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Category B of HIV

may be asymptomatic, may lead to incresed infection (thrush) persistent diarrhea. shingles. HIV is reproducing but killed and controlled. resides in lymph nodes. Stage can last 10-20 years

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Category C of HIV

clinical AIDS defined by a decrease in Th cells. persistent infection occur (yeast infections in lungs) high prevalence of pneumonia, TB, etc.

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Kaposi's sarcoma

rare herpes virus in AIDs

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HIV transmission by blood

contact with infected blood (sharing needles), blood has 1000-100, 000 viruses/mL. 1:400 infected blood exposure

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Semen vaginal secretions transmission of HIV

contact through unprotected sex. semen has 10-50 viruses/ mL. 1:1000 unprotected sexual encounters result in infection

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Mother to child HIV transmission

occurs during pregnancy, birth or breast milk.

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HIV virus is most often located..

within the cell, outside of the body the virus can survive 1 day within cell and 6 hrs outside