Lecture 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 Deck (32):
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Sporadic

disease occurs only occasionally

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Endemic

low and constant levels of a disease (cold)`

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Epidemic

disease occurs in high numbers over short time

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Pandemic

epidemic disease that occurs worldwide

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Emerging infectious diseases

newly identified, notable number of cases

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Reservoir

source of infectious agent

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Human reservoirs

people that harbour pathogens and transmit them to theory, germs can be transferred during any stage of this disease

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Carriers

people that transmit pathogens w/o having any signs of disease themselves

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Animal reservoirs (zoonosis)

disease that occurs in animals but can be transmitted to humans

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Non-living reservoirs

soil and water are the two most important

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Fomites

any non-living object that spreads pathogens (used needles)

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3 principle routes of transmission of disease

-contact transmission
-vehicle transmission
-vector transmission

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3 forms of contact transmission

-direct
-indirect
-droplet

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Direct transmission

person to person

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Indirect transmission

through fomites

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Droplet transmission

spread by a short distance (less than 1 meter)

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Vehicle transmission

pathogens transmitted by a medium

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3 forms of vehicle transmission

-waterborne
-airborne
-foodborne

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Waterborne

due to improperly treated sewage (E.coli)

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Airborne

spread over less than one meter (dust or droplets)

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Foodborne

food poisoning

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Vector transmission

animals that carry pathogens from one host to another, usually and insect as vector.

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Example of vector transmission

West nile virus, birds are reservoir , mosquitoes are vector and human as host

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Nosocomial infections

hospital inquired infections, occur in 5-10% of patients.

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Nosocomial infections result in several factors..

-pathogens in the hospital
-immuno-compromised patients

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Transmission of nosocomial infections

-direct
-indirect
-airborne

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4 ways of controlling the spread of disease

-hygiene
-vectors
-avoidance
-isolation

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Hygiene

proper hand washing (most effective). proper sterilization, disinfection, sanitation. proper food and water prep. proper sewage treatment

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Vectors

controlling insect vectors, vaccination of domestic animals

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Avoidance

avoid contact with carriers

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Quarantine

removal of infected individuals from society

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Isolation

people who are high susceptible to a particular disease are isolated