Lecture 2 Flashcards Preview

Mbio 1220 > Lecture 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (77):
1

Atom

smallest unit of matter which can partake in chemical reaction. composed of one type of atom

2

Molecule

formed when 2 or more atoms join together (h2o)

3

Every atom is composed of..

a single centrally located nucleus which contains protons (+) and neutrons

4

Since neutrons don't have any charge the nucleus with always carry..

net positive charge

5

Nuclear contents do not participate in chemical reactions thus referred to as..

stable

6

Electrons

exist outside of the nucleus in specialized regions of space called orbitals, carry (-) charge

7

Weaker bonds are ____ reactions

more

8

When chemically stable..

no longer reactive

9

When atom loses an electron ..

will have net + charge

10

When atom gains an electron ..

will have net - charge

11

Either too difficult or easy to fill outer shell so it becomes...

an ion

12

When an atom has an overall - or + charge its no longer neutral and is referred to as..

an ion

13

_____ of electrons is strongest chemical bond

sharing

14

Atoms achieve a full complement of electrons (8) by..

combining to form molecules

15

3 kinds of chemical bonds for in living organism

covalent, ionic, hydrogen

16

Covalent bonds

very strong, formed when 2 atoms come together and share electrons within their outer shell (ex: h2o)

17

Ionic bonds

form as a result of the attractive force in between ions of opposite charge, weaker than covalent bonds (ex: NaCl)

18

Hydrogen bonds

form when hydrogen is covalently bound to oxygen or another electron loving molecule (nitrogen), weakest bond

19

Since atom bound to hydrogen is "electron loving" ..

it holds the shared electrons closer to its nucleus than hydrogen

20

Non polar covalent bond

electrons are equally shared in between the two atoms (H and C)

21

Polar covalent bond

electrons are not equally shared in between the 2 atoms and are held more closely to the oxygen nucleus

22

What type of charge is on the hydrogen atom in a hydrogen bond

partial postive charge

23

What type of charge is on the electron loving atom in a hydrogen bond

partial negative charge

24

The partial charge on the hydrogen atom is attracted to..

partial negative charge on atoms within OTHER molecules

25

In hydrogen bond, more cold = ___ while more heat = ____

more bonds; less bonds

26

Max of H bonds for water molecule

4

27

Organic compounds are compounds that contain..

carbon

28

Inorganic compounds are compounds that do not contain..

carbon (ex: h2o)

29

Water accounts for _% of cell weight

75

30

Why water is a polar solvent

dissolves materials, and the electrons aren't shared equally between H and O

31

Living things are able to make such a good use of water because..

-water us excellent solvent
-every water molecule can form 4 H bonds w/ other water molecules
-water is great temp buffer because of its strong H bonds
-water is easily split into its component ion H and OH

32

Water can dissolve

ionic compounds while the ions remain dissolved in water and form solution

33

Why does the water ion solution form

partial + regions w/ in the water molecules surround the - ions and partial - regions w/ in the water molecules surround the + ions holding them in solution

34

Hydrogen bond allows water to form..

networks of interconnected water molecules which gives water a very high boiling point

35

Waters boiling point

100 degrees celcius

36

How does waters high boiling point benefit it

keeps water in its liquid state in most places that its found on Earth

37

Water being easily split into its component ions allows..

it to play key roles in many chemical reactions, break up to an acid and base

38

The 4 outer electrons of carbon allow it to..

form 4 covalent bonds with a large number of diff atoms

39

4 major classes of organic compounds found in living things

-carbohydrates
-proteins
-lipids
-nucleic acids

40

Carbohydrates

energy source that is immediately utilizable by cells, polar compounds that dissolve in water

41

3 major groups of carbohydrates

-monosaccharides
-disaccharides
-polysaccarides

42

Monosaccarides

one sugar (glucose, fructose)

43

Disaccarides

formed from two monosaccharides coming together (sucrose)

44

Polysaccarides

formed by hundreds of monosaccharides coming together

45

Polysaccharides are..

often too large to be water soluble

46

Group of lipids includes..

fats, complex lipids (phospholipids) and steroids

47

Lipids are essential to the ________ __ ______ of membranes

stucture and function

48

Lipids are polar or non polar?? and used as..

non polar therefore don't interact w/ water (hydrophobic) and used as means of NRG storage

49

Fats composed of..

glycerol molecule plus 1-3 fatty acids (FA)

50

Monoacylglycerides

glycerol plus 1 FA

51

Diacylgylcerides

glycerol plus 2 FA

52

Triacylglycerides

glycerol plus 3 FA

53

Fatty acid can either be..

saturated or unsaturated

54

Saturated

no double bonds, saturated with hydrogen atoms

55

Unsaturated

has at least one double bond, fewer hydrogen atoms

56

Phospholipids

complex lipids, include glycerol, 2 FA and phosphate group

57

Phospholipids are found in..

membranes of living cells, primary component of prokaryotic and eukaryotic plasma membranes

58

Steroids

have 4 ring structure, distinct from other lipids, mostly foamed in eukaryotes

59

Examples of steroids

cholesterol and vitamin D

60

Proteins are composed of ..

individual units called amino acids

61

How many amino acids do we know

20

62

All amino acids (proteins) are composed of..

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen (some have sulfur)

63

Each amino acid has... which is different on each amino acid

-amino group (NH2+)
-carboxyl group (COOH-)
-sode group (-R)

64

-R side group of amino acids determines..

the chemical properties of the amino acid

65

Individual amino acids are joined together by..

peptide bonds which are covalent bonds

66

Short chains of amino acids are called..

peptides

67

Long chains of amino acids are called..

proteins

68

Specific amino acid sequence is important in determining ..

shape of the protein

69

2 ways proteins are required in cells

-structural component (membrane channels)
-enzymes

70

Enzymes

increase rate of chemical reactions which occurs within the cell

71

3 components of nucleotide

-nitrogenous base
-pentose sugar
-phosphate group

72

2 types of nitrogenous bases

-purines
-pyrimidines

73

Purines

contain 2 rings, adenine and guanine

74

Pyrimidines

contain 1 ring, cytosine, thymine, and uracil

75

Pentose sugar

5 carbon sugar, either ribose or deoxyribose

76

Phosphate group

attached to nucleotide and serves as site of attachment for next nucleotide, - charge

77

2 types of nucleic acid

-deoxyribose
-ribose