Lecture 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 18 Deck (33):
1

Hair follicle infections most commonly caused by

staphylococcus aureus

2

Coagulase as a hair follicle infection virulence factor

exoenzyme that promotes fibrin clots

3

Protein A as a hair follicle infection virulence factor

binds to the Fc fragment of antibodies and inhibits opsonization

4

Hyaluronidase and collagenase as a hair follicle infection virulence factor

degrades hyaluronic acid and collagen

5

Leukocidin as a hair follicle infection virulence factor

kills leukocytes

6

α toxin as a hair follicle infection virulence factor

destroys cells by poking holes in membrane

7

Exfoliatin

exotoxin that causes the separation of skin layers . causes scalded skin syndrome.

8

Scalded skin syndrome

in newborns, transmitted by direct or indirect contact (issue in hospital nurseries). prevented using hexachlorophene

9

Toxic shock syndrome toxin

cause toxic shock syndrome. results form localized infection, toxin is released into blood behaving as super antigen cause extreme immune reaction (fever, rash, vomiting, shock, death..)

10

Enterotoxins

toxins produced in foods that are stored at rom temp

11

Impetigo

Most commonly produced by streptococcus pyogenes. (or staphylococcus aureus) usually required a wound to penetrate the outer layer of skin (cut), causes inflammation of epidermis. results in thin walled blister (oozes plasma, allows bacteria to spread) transmitted by direct or indirect contact. treated w/ antibiotics

12

Acne vulgaris

inflammatory acne caused by Propionibacterium acnes (member of the normal microbiota) grows anaerobically in hair follicles. eats sebum, over production of sebum can block follicle and bacterial overgrowth leads to inflammation

13

Acne vulgarism treated with

antibiotics, benzol peroxide, isoretinoin (accutane, reduced sebum production. side effect can be birth defects and depression)

14

Lyme disease

caused by borrelia burgdorferi (a spirochete) commonly infects deer and mice but transmitted to humans by ticks (vector)

15

Symptoms of lyme disease

1st stage: bullseye rash at bite site, fever, muscle pain, headache. last up to 2 weeks
2nd stage: characterized by arthritis, facial paralysis, irregular heart rhythms
3rd stage: chronic arthritis, neurological changes (memory, mood, sleep changes

16

Treatment of lyme disease

antibtiocs given at first stage (not in 2nd or 3rd), arthritis and neurological changed are most likely due to autoimmunity

17

Varicella

chickenpox caused by varicella zoster virus (human herpes virus 3). highly contagious, incubation period 10-21 days.

18

Symptoms of varicella

characteristic rash, raised lesions over body. if virus enters nerve cells becomes latent and reaction causes shingles

19

Treatment and prevention of varicella

treated w/ acyclovir. prevention: attenuated whole agent vaccine administered as part of MMRV regime

20

Rubeola

measles virus spread by respiratory droplets (high contagious) incubation period 10-12 days. humans are only reservoir.

21

Signs and symptoms of rubeola

cold like symptoms, koplik spots and macular rash (possible complications: viral pneumonia, encephalitis, brain damage, SSPE)

22

Treatment and prevention of rubeola

no treatment, attenuated vaccine administered as part of MMRV regime

23

Deaths from measles before and after vaccine

2.6 bill per year before, and 200,000 per year after

24

Rubella

german measles caused by rubella virus, causes milder disease than measles (pink rash)

25

Serious complication of rubella during pregnancy

fetus develop congenital rubella syndrome. birth defects include: eye cataracts, deafness, heart defects, mental disability and still birth

26

Treatment and prevention of rubella

no treatment. prevented by attenuated vaccine administered as part of MMRV regime

27

Warts

caused by human papillomavirus. small tumors caused on skin and mucous membranes. transmitted by direct or indirect contact. specific viral types infect diff types of skin and membranes (different types of warts) only some viral strains are oncogenic

28

Treatment and prevention of warts

treated by removing virally infected cells (freezing w. nitrogen, salicylic acid, surgical removal) prevention: HPV vaccine protects against 4 diff viral strains

29

Cutaneous mycoses

fungi on hair, nails, outer layers of skin. use the keratin as nutrient source.

30

Example of cutaneous mycoses

ringworm: ring shaped fungal rash that often occurred in most areas of body

31

Cutaneous mycoses treated with..

topical creams containing azoles, oral griseofulvin for hair/nail infections but has to be taken till grown out

32

Candidiasis

caused by yeast Candida albicans. causes thrush and vaginitis. opportunistic pathogen.

33

Treatment for candidiasis

topical azoles or mouthwash containing nystatin