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inflammation of meninges which are the membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord. caused by bacteria or virus



inflammation of brain. mostly caused by virus


Bacterial meningitis sings and symptoms

fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea vomiting, convulsions, shock, coma


Streptococcus pneumoniae. (pneumococcal meningitis)

member of the normal microbiota of upper respiratory tract. frequent cause of pneumonia. capsule allows evasion of phagocytosis. exoenzymes degrade issues allowing dissemination into blood then meninges


Treatment and prevention for streptococcus pneumoniae

treated with antibiotics (broad spectrum) (resistance is a problem) prevention: vaccine is made from capsular polysaccharide (subunit vaccine given to elderly, conjugated vaccine given to children)


Meningococcal meningitis

caused by neisseria meningitidis, transmitted by infectious droplets. can cause epidemics in high populated areas. primary infection in throat spreads to meninges. gram -'ve organisms so endotoxin causes shock


Symptoms of Meningococcal meningitis

similar to pneumococcal pneumonia, petechiae (purple spots on skin)


Treatment and prevention of Meningococcal meningitis

treated with antibiotics. prevented with subunit vaccine (targets capsular polysaccharide)


Haemophilus influenzae (hib meningitis)

gram negative, produces endotoxin. causes ear eye and throat infections, and pneumonia. spreads through contact with infectious droplets. most cases transmitted from adult carrier to unvaccinated child


Treatment and prevention of harmophilus influenzae

treated with antibiotics and prevented with conjugated diphtheria toxoid to immunize young child.


Listeria monocytogenes

food, soil or waterborne pathogen. found in unpasteurized dairy products contaminated with animal feces. psychrotroph.


Listeria monocytogenes symptoms

in adults: mild flu like symptoms or asymptomatic leads to meningitis. can be transferred thru placenta to fetus
in newborns: caused meningitis and death


Treatment and prevention for listeria monocytogenes

treated with antibiotics, prevented by monitor food supply and cook deli meats. bacteriophage sprays to destroy L. monocytogenes


Mycobacterium leprae

causes Hansen's disease (leprosy). intracellular parasite: lives inside peripherals nerves and skin cells. prefers to live in extremities (nose, fingers) causes nerve damage (patients loses feeling in infected tissue) degradation of tissues. transmitted through direct contact (only some ppl are effected)


Symptoms of leprosy

nerve damage, loss of feeling in infected tissue


Tuberculoid leprosy

regions of the skin loose sensation, recovery can occur spontaneously. nerve damage is permanent.


Lepramataous leprosy

disfiguring nodules all over body. cell mediated immunity fails. damage to nervous tissue continues. necrosis of tissue and deformation of extremities


Treatment of tuberculoid and lepromatous

tuberculoid: combo of 2 antibiotics for 6 months
-Lepromatous 2 or 4 antibiotics for 2 years


Clostridium tetani

produces tetanospasmin. rigid paralysis, spasms cause death. localized infection and toxemia


Clostridium botulinum

produces botulinum toxin/ flaccid paralysis, leads to respiratory and cardiac failsure. occurs as food borne illness


Treatment of tetanus

DTaP vaccine. after potential infection, booster shot or passive immunization with remade antibodies


Treatment of botulism

no vaccine, passive immunization with remade antibodies


Arboviral encephalitis (arthropod-borne-virus)

transmitted by insect bites. mosquitoes as vector. virus enters blood and peripheral nerves.


Symptoms of Arboviral encephalitis

asymptomatic: immune system quickly overcomes infection. in weakened patients virus travel tot brain and causes encephalitis.


2 arboviruses in Manitoba

-western equine encephalitis (rare and infects horses birds and humans)
-west nile virus (frequently insects birds. rarely causes disease in humans)


Poliomyelitis (polio virus)

transmission: fecal contamination of food and water. multiples in the throat of intestine, usually cleared by immune system. moves to lymph nodes and blood. can infect nerve cells (paralysis, back spasms and pain) no treatment


Prevention of polio

-oral poli vaccine (OPV) live attenuated vaccine. natural route of infection (oral) stimulates complete antibody and cell mediated immune response.
-inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) silk vaccine. less effective immunity: safe vaccine because it cannot revert



zoonotic disease. transmitted through saliva of infected host. usually through cut or bit for entry. some stain can penetrate unbroken skin (respiratory route) results in encephalitis. long incubation period 5-8 weeks


Symptoms of rabies

agitation, spasms in mouth and throat, hydrophobic. foaming in the mouth. paralysis and behavioural changes. fatal within few days


Passive immunization treatment for rabies

with pre made anti rabies antibodies. neutralized any free virus. prevents the virus from penetrating and infecting cells


Active immunization treatment for rabies

injection for inactivated rabies virus. stimulates an adaptive immune response. works because incubation period of rabies is 5-8 weeks. enough time to build memory cells before virus enter brain. vaccine available for domestic animals and people who are at risk of being bitten. no treatment after symptoms have appeared


African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

spread by protozoan trypansoma. humans and animals are reservoir. transmitted by tsetse fly. multiplies at infection site and enters blood. causes meningitis and encephalitis resulting in coma


Symptoms and prevention of African trypanosomiasis

lethargy, drowsiness, lost of interest, coma and death. prevented by vector control


Treatment for African trypanosomiasis

Eflornithine (very effective) problem is people suffering from sleeping sickness cannot afford the drug so it was discontinued