Flashcards in Lecture 17 Deck (63):
strep throat. bacterial. streptococcus pyogenes (group A)
Symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis
sore throat, pus, red spots, fever
Virulence facts of streptococcal pharyngitis
-streptolysins (enzoenzymes that lyse red and white blood cells)
-capsule (prevents phagocytosis)
-M proteins (surface antigens interfere w/ complement)
Treatment to streptococcal pharyngitis
Scarlet fever and symptoms
erythrogenic (reddening) toxin. symptoms: server fever, red tongue, sandpaper rash
Necrotizing fasciitis pyrogenic exotoxin A
superantigen. causes a massive immune response, high fever, inflammation and shock
Necrotizing fasciitis pyrogenic exotoxin B
exoenzyme. degrades protein, causing tissue death and breakdown. infects tissue faster than surgeon can cut
Post streptococcal sequelae
complications that can develop from strep throat
Rheumatic fever and symptoms
antibodies against M proteins damage heart tissue and valves. symptoms: fever, joint pain, nodules in joints
inflammation of the heart, long term damage to heart valves. leads to heart failure, death.
Why post streptococcal sequelae is rare in North America
prompt treatments of strep throat, random mutations in the gene encoding the M protein
Diphtheria caused by..
mild sore throat, extreme fatigue and malaise. produces diphtheria toxin.
cytotoxin. destroys respiratory tract. pseudomembrane forms on the tonsils and throat that can cause suffocation. can be released in blood causing heart and kidney failure
Treatment of diptheria
antibiotics work to stop the infection, cannot destroy toxin. anti toxin antibody can be administered
Presentation of diptheria
toxoid vaccine given as part of the DTaP regime
Pertussis caused by... also known as...
Bortadella pertussis, whooping cough
First stage of pertussis
cold like symptoms
Second stage of pertussis
bacterium produces a cytotoxin. kills ciliated cells in the airway, prevents movement of mucous, results in violent coughs
Treatment of pertussis
antibiotics, but only effective against bacterium during first stage before damage occurred
Prevention of pertussis
effective vaccination as part of DTaP (booster every 10 years)
Pinkeye, earaches, and sinus infections can be caused by..
bacteria or viruses. if virus causes infections, treat symptoms but no chemical treatment like bacterial
Conjunctivitis, symptoms and treatment
infection of surface of eye, symptoms: redness, itching of eye, pus and swelling present with bacteria. treatment: antibiotics
infection of middle ear, causes severe earache. most common in children, antibiotics rarely used
Sinusitis, symptoms, and treatment
infection of sinuses, facial pain and pressure, thick green nasal discharge. treatment: antibiotics
lung infection, can be caused by many diff bacteria
Pneumococcal pneumonia caused by.. and treated with..
streptococcus pneumoniae, gram postive bacterium; antibiotics
Symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia
high fever, difficult breathing, chest pain, coughing, prostration. required hospitalization
2 ways to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia
-subunit vaccine; capsular polysaccharide given to risk groups (elder, alcoholics)
-conjugate vaccine; effective in babies as young as 2 month
Klebsiella pneumonia caused by..
Klebsiella pneumoniae a gram negative bacterium
Symptoms of Klebsiella pneumonia
high fever, difficult breathing, chest pain, coughing, prostration
Treatment of Klebsiella pneumonia
broad spectrum, problems with resistance
KPC: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (β-lactamase)
frequent cause of nosocomial infections
Prevention of Klebsiella pneumonia
infection control measures
once the major cause of pneumonia in young children
major cause of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients
"walking pneumonia" generally more mild pneumonia that rarely requires hospitalization
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by..
transmitted via coughing (remains viable in dried drop/sputum). develop a latent infection: no symptoms. can develop chronic disease later in life.
Symptoms if any of tuberculosis ..
progressive weight loss, chronic coughing, clarified lesions in lung, eventual death
Tuberculin skin test (mantoux test)
purified protein injected into skin and reacts w/ memory T cells. may indicate active or previous infections or previous vaccination
Treatment of tuberculosis
6 month regimen of 3-4 antibiotics including rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin etc. (resistance is big prob)
Vaccine for tuberculosis
live attenuated vaccine composed of a closely related species. cause disease in immunocompromised patients, but doesn't always confer effective immunity
Legionnaires disease caused by..
survives and multiplies inside of macrophages. transmitted through aerosolized water droplets
Symptoms of legionnaires disease
dry cough, fever, shaking chills, confusion, death
Legionnaires disease treatment
antibiotics that exhibit good penetration . (no presentation or vaccine)
nasopharyngitis, sneezing and nasal congestion. self limiting in 1 week, no treatment or vaccine.
Exposure of common cold results in long lasting immunity but..
-there are at least 8 groups
-each group of several types
fever, malasie, body aches, chest cough, cold like symptoms appear as fever subsides
Influenza virus is...
enveloped, 8 segments, RNA virus
2 types of spikes and their purpose on influenza virus
-hemagglutinin (H antigen): for attachment
-neuraminidase (N antigen): promise release of virus from host
Target of neuraminidase inhibitors ..
Tamiflu and Relenza
Influenza is named after..
2 antigens; hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (ex:H1N1)
Antigenic drift in influenza
minor mutations in H antigen or N antigen. results in minor annula flu variation, results in vaccine or immunity becoming less effective but number destination doesn't change
Antigenic shift in influenza
2 viruses infect same individual they can exchange segments, results in genetic rearrangement, all invasion of pst immunity. can result in pandemics
made each year, directed at 3 antigenic strains expected to be most prevent in coming year
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
leading cause in low respiratory tract infections in child. causes cells to form syncytia
Symptoms and treatment of RSV
symptoms: runny nose, wheezing, difficult breathing, croup (loud high pitched cough). treatment: no effective treatments/vaccine
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
caused by hantavirus. transmitted through the inhalation of dried urine and feces from infected rodents
Symptoms and treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
symptoms: fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. lungs fill w/ fluid causing difficult breathing (lead to shock/death) treatment: no treatment or vaccine
North american blastomycosis
caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. transmitted by inhalation of yeast like spores found in acidic soils. begins as lung infection (pneumonia symptoms). becomes systemic