Lecture 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 17 Deck (63):
1

Streptococcal pharyngitis

strep throat. bacterial. streptococcus pyogenes (group A)

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Symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis

sore throat, pus, red spots, fever

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Virulence facts of streptococcal pharyngitis

-streptolysins (enzoenzymes that lyse red and white blood cells)
-streptokinase (fibrinolysin)
-capsule (prevents phagocytosis)
-M proteins (surface antigens interfere w/ complement)

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Treatment to streptococcal pharyngitis

penicillin

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Scarlet fever and symptoms

erythrogenic (reddening) toxin. symptoms: server fever, red tongue, sandpaper rash

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Necrotizing fasciitis pyrogenic exotoxin A

superantigen. causes a massive immune response, high fever, inflammation and shock

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Necrotizing fasciitis pyrogenic exotoxin B

exoenzyme. degrades protein, causing tissue death and breakdown. infects tissue faster than surgeon can cut

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Post streptococcal sequelae

complications that can develop from strep throat

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Rheumatic fever and symptoms

antibodies against M proteins damage heart tissue and valves. symptoms: fever, joint pain, nodules in joints

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Carditis

inflammation of the heart, long term damage to heart valves. leads to heart failure, death.

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Why post streptococcal sequelae is rare in North America

prompt treatments of strep throat, random mutations in the gene encoding the M protein

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Diphtheria caused by..

corynebacterium diphtheria.

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Diptheria symptoms

mild sore throat, extreme fatigue and malaise. produces diphtheria toxin.

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Diptheria toxin

cytotoxin. destroys respiratory tract. pseudomembrane forms on the tonsils and throat that can cause suffocation. can be released in blood causing heart and kidney failure

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Treatment of diptheria

antibiotics work to stop the infection, cannot destroy toxin. anti toxin antibody can be administered

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Presentation of diptheria

toxoid vaccine given as part of the DTaP regime

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Pertussis caused by... also known as...

Bortadella pertussis, whooping cough

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First stage of pertussis

cold like symptoms

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Second stage of pertussis

bacterium produces a cytotoxin. kills ciliated cells in the airway, prevents movement of mucous, results in violent coughs

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Treatment of pertussis

antibiotics, but only effective against bacterium during first stage before damage occurred

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Prevention of pertussis

effective vaccination as part of DTaP (booster every 10 years)

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Pinkeye, earaches, and sinus infections can be caused by..

bacteria or viruses. if virus causes infections, treat symptoms but no chemical treatment like bacterial

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Conjunctivitis, symptoms and treatment

infection of surface of eye, symptoms: redness, itching of eye, pus and swelling present with bacteria. treatment: antibiotics

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Otitis media

infection of middle ear, causes severe earache. most common in children, antibiotics rarely used

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Sinusitis, symptoms, and treatment

infection of sinuses, facial pain and pressure, thick green nasal discharge. treatment: antibiotics

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Bacterial pneumonias

lung infection, can be caused by many diff bacteria

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Pneumococcal pneumonia caused by.. and treated with..

streptococcus pneumoniae, gram postive bacterium; antibiotics

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Symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia

high fever, difficult breathing, chest pain, coughing, prostration. required hospitalization

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2 ways to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia

-subunit vaccine; capsular polysaccharide given to risk groups (elder, alcoholics)
-conjugate vaccine; effective in babies as young as 2 month

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Klebsiella pneumonia caused by..

Klebsiella pneumoniae a gram negative bacterium

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Symptoms of Klebsiella pneumonia

high fever, difficult breathing, chest pain, coughing, prostration

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Treatment of Klebsiella pneumonia

broad spectrum, problems with resistance

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KPC: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (β-lactamase)

frequent cause of nosocomial infections

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Prevention of Klebsiella pneumonia

infection control measures

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Haemophilus influenza

once the major cause of pneumonia in young children

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

major cause of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients

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Mycoplasma pneumoniae

"walking pneumonia" generally more mild pneumonia that rarely requires hospitalization

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Tuberculosis (TB) caused by..

mycobacterium tuberculosis

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Tuberculosis

transmitted via coughing (remains viable in dried drop/sputum). develop a latent infection: no symptoms. can develop chronic disease later in life.

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Symptoms if any of tuberculosis ..

progressive weight loss, chronic coughing, clarified lesions in lung, eventual death

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Tuberculin skin test (mantoux test)

purified protein injected into skin and reacts w/ memory T cells. may indicate active or previous infections or previous vaccination

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Treatment of tuberculosis

6 month regimen of 3-4 antibiotics including rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin etc. (resistance is big prob)

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Vaccine for tuberculosis

live attenuated vaccine composed of a closely related species. cause disease in immunocompromised patients, but doesn't always confer effective immunity

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Legionnaires disease caused by..

Legionella pneumophila

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Legionnaires disease

survives and multiplies inside of macrophages. transmitted through aerosolized water droplets

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Symptoms of legionnaires disease

dry cough, fever, shaking chills, confusion, death

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Legionnaires disease treatment

antibiotics that exhibit good penetration . (no presentation or vaccine)

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Common cold

nasopharyngitis, sneezing and nasal congestion. self limiting in 1 week, no treatment or vaccine.

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Exposure of common cold results in long lasting immunity but..

-there are at least 8 groups
-each group of several types

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Influenza symptoms

fever, malasie, body aches, chest cough, cold like symptoms appear as fever subsides

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Influenza virus is...

enveloped, 8 segments, RNA virus

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2 types of spikes and their purpose on influenza virus

-hemagglutinin (H antigen): for attachment
-neuraminidase (N antigen): promise release of virus from host

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Target of neuraminidase inhibitors ..

Tamiflu and Relenza

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Influenza is named after..

2 antigens; hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (ex:H1N1)

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Antigenic drift in influenza

minor mutations in H antigen or N antigen. results in minor annula flu variation, results in vaccine or immunity becoming less effective but number destination doesn't change

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Antigenic shift in influenza

2 viruses infect same individual they can exchange segments, results in genetic rearrangement, all invasion of pst immunity. can result in pandemics

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Influenza vaccine

made each year, directed at 3 antigenic strains expected to be most prevent in coming year

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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

leading cause in low respiratory tract infections in child. causes cells to form syncytia

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Symptoms and treatment of RSV

symptoms: runny nose, wheezing, difficult breathing, croup (loud high pitched cough). treatment: no effective treatments/vaccine

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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

caused by hantavirus. transmitted through the inhalation of dried urine and feces from infected rodents

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Symptoms and treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

symptoms: fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. lungs fill w/ fluid causing difficult breathing (lead to shock/death) treatment: no treatment or vaccine

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North american blastomycosis

caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. transmitted by inhalation of yeast like spores found in acidic soils. begins as lung infection (pneumonia symptoms). becomes systemic

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Diagnosis and treatment of North American blastomycosis

diagnosed based on skin or tissue ulcers. treated with anphotericin B