Lecture 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 19 Deck (46):
1

Dental carriers

cavities caused by many diff bacteria. streptococcus mutants most often involved, allows bacteria to stick to teeth. perform lactic acid fermentation.

2

Dental carriers are prevented by..

brushing and flossing, fluoride modifies the enamel of the tooth making it resistant to acid.

3

Periodontal disease

gum disease and gingivitis. enzymes produced degrade gum tissues and cause inflammation. gingivitis is inflammation &bleeding of gums.

4

Prevention and treatment of periodontal disease

brushing and flossing. treated with antibiotics and surgery

5

Gastritis

caused by helicobacter pylori. produced ammonia, neutralized stomach acid. degrades protective mucous lining of stomach (acid contacts stomach wall causing tissue damage)

6

Treatment of gastritis

antibiotics and drugs to inhibit acid production

7

Oral herpes simplex

caused by herpes simplex virus 1. infection rate as high as 90%.

8

Symptoms of oral herpes simplex

asymptomatic, 1/3 patients will have recurrent cold sores. can cause disease to other parts of body (herpetic whitlow)

9

Treatment of oral herpes simplex

topical creams containing acyclovir. most effective on active lesions, will not eliminate latent infection

10

Mumps

caused by pumps virus, transmitted by infectious droplets.

11

Symptoms of mumps

fever, loss of appetite, headache. swelling of salivary glands. in adult males swelling of testicles and sterility. in adult females swelling of ovaries and increase miscarriage chance. rare cases cause viral meningitis

12

Treatment and prevention of mumps

no treatment. attenuated whole agent vaccine administered as part of MMRV regime

13

Infection of the lower digestive system causes

-gastroenteritis
-abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting
-diarrhea
-dysentery
-intoxication
-ingestion of bacteria

14

Gastroenteritis

inflammation of stomach and small intestine

15

Dysentery

sever diarrhea accompanied by blood and mucous

16

Intoxication

occurs from infection of toxins in food, sudden appearance of symptoms, rarely characterized by fever

17

Ingestion of bacteria

foodborne illness. incubation period occurs while pathogen increase in number, often characterized by fever

18

Cholera

caused by vibrio cholera. lives in salter water (spread to fresh water tho) some4 bacteria able to survive transit through stomach and colonized in small intestine. produce cholera toxin (enterotoxin)

19

Symptoms of cholera

causes intestine to secrete electrolytes. water follows by osmosis. up to 20L of water lost per day, causes shock, collapse, death

20

Treatment and prevention of cholera

treatment: clean drinking water, nearly 100% survival rate. prevention: sanitary practices and chlorinated drinking water

21

Shigellosis

caused by members of shigella genus (e.coli relative) transmitted through food and water contaminated with human fecal matter. bacteria multiply inside macrophages and invade intestinal cells. inflammation and cell death cause dysentery.

22

Some strains of shigellosis are abel to produce..

shiga toxin. cytotoxin that kills cells in capillaries and kidneys. causes hemolytic ureic syndrome.

23

Treatment and prevention shigellosis

antibiotic combined with rehydration therapy. prevented with proper sanitation

24

E.coli gastroenteritis

E.coli found in intestinal tract of mammals. indicator of fecal contamination. most strains are members of normal microbiota. some possess virulence to allow them to cause disease

25

Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC)

produces an entertoxin (cholera like toxin causes watery diarrhea). self limiting

26

Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)

produces shiga toxins. inflammation of the colon, profuse bleeding, sever bloody diarrhea, effect kidney function (Hemolytic uremic syndrome)

27

Enterohemorrhagic E.coli treatment

antibiotics and rehydration therapy. antibiotic resistance is becoming problem

28

Salmonellosis

non typhoidal salmonella. transmitted in foods contaminated with animal fees. bacteria use invasions to enter epithelial cells of intestine/ endotoxin causes inflammation

29

Symptoms and treatment for salmonellosis

symptoms: fever, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea. treated with rehydration there[y (antibiotics harmful)

30

Typhoid fever

caused by salmonella typhi. transmitted by human fecal matter. more virulent than non typhoidal salmonella. endotoxin causes shock, organ failure and death. treated with bacteriostatic antibiotics

31

Clostridium difficile infection

resistant to antibiotics. colonized large intestine when normal microbiota is disturbed.. antibiotic associated diarrhea, nosocomial infection. may cause Pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of colon)

32

Clostridium difficile infection treatment

antibiotics, probiotics, fecal transplant

33

Viral gastroenteritis

caused by enterovirus group (rotavirus, norwalk virus). self limiting (1 week) fecal-oral transmission

34

Symptoms, treatment, and prevention of viral gastroenteritis

symptoms: low fever, diarrhea, vomiting. treated with rehydration therapy. prevented with proper hand washing and some enteroviruses have vaccines

35

Hepatitis

inflammation of the liver. caused by several diff viruses

36

Hepatitis A

infectious hepatitis transmitted via fecal oral route. causes acute infection, self limiting in a few months.

37

Symptoms and treatment to hepatitis A

symptoms: malaise, diarrhea, nausea, liver damage, jaundice. no treatment

38

Prevention of hepatitis A

inactive whole agent vaccine given to risk groups, post exposure passive immunity possible w/ pre made antibodies

39

Hepatitis B

serum hepatitis. transmitted by direct/indirect contact with infected bodily fluid. can be either self limiting acute or chronic infection. virus cells multiples in liver cells, lead to cirrhosis. viral DNA integrates into host cell as provirus

40

Treatment and prevention of hepatitis B

cannot be cured, may be treated with antiviral therapy to slow viral replication. prevention: subunit vaccine given to risk groups and children, avoid bodily fluids

41

Hepatitis C

transfusion associated hepatitis. transmitted via indirect contact (needles) 25 day delay between infection and detection. can be cured

42

Chronic infection of liver

no apparent symptoms for 20 years, eventually results in cirrhosis and liver cancer. no vaccine, treated with combo theory of interferon and antivirals

43

Giardiasis

beaver fever, caused by giardia lamblia. transmitted by drinking water that has been contaminated with face matter from animals

44

Symptoms and treatment of Giardiasis

Symptoms: indigestions, nausea, flatulence, explosive diarrhea

45

Cryptosporidiosis

caused by Cryptosporidium, transmitted by improperly treated drinking water. resists chlorine

46

Symptoms of cryptosporidiosis

fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, watery diarrhea. can kill immuno compromised patients