Flashcards in Lecture 19 Deck (46):
cavities caused by many diff bacteria. streptococcus mutants most often involved, allows bacteria to stick to teeth. perform lactic acid fermentation.
Dental carriers are prevented by..
brushing and flossing, fluoride modifies the enamel of the tooth making it resistant to acid.
gum disease and gingivitis. enzymes produced degrade gum tissues and cause inflammation. gingivitis is inflammation &bleeding of gums.
Prevention and treatment of periodontal disease
brushing and flossing. treated with antibiotics and surgery
caused by helicobacter pylori. produced ammonia, neutralized stomach acid. degrades protective mucous lining of stomach (acid contacts stomach wall causing tissue damage)
Treatment of gastritis
antibiotics and drugs to inhibit acid production
Oral herpes simplex
caused by herpes simplex virus 1. infection rate as high as 90%.
Symptoms of oral herpes simplex
asymptomatic, 1/3 patients will have recurrent cold sores. can cause disease to other parts of body (herpetic whitlow)
Treatment of oral herpes simplex
topical creams containing acyclovir. most effective on active lesions, will not eliminate latent infection
caused by pumps virus, transmitted by infectious droplets.
Symptoms of mumps
fever, loss of appetite, headache. swelling of salivary glands. in adult males swelling of testicles and sterility. in adult females swelling of ovaries and increase miscarriage chance. rare cases cause viral meningitis
Treatment and prevention of mumps
no treatment. attenuated whole agent vaccine administered as part of MMRV regime
Infection of the lower digestive system causes
-abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting
-ingestion of bacteria
inflammation of stomach and small intestine
sever diarrhea accompanied by blood and mucous
occurs from infection of toxins in food, sudden appearance of symptoms, rarely characterized by fever
Ingestion of bacteria
foodborne illness. incubation period occurs while pathogen increase in number, often characterized by fever
caused by vibrio cholera. lives in salter water (spread to fresh water tho) some4 bacteria able to survive transit through stomach and colonized in small intestine. produce cholera toxin (enterotoxin)
Symptoms of cholera
causes intestine to secrete electrolytes. water follows by osmosis. up to 20L of water lost per day, causes shock, collapse, death
Treatment and prevention of cholera
treatment: clean drinking water, nearly 100% survival rate. prevention: sanitary practices and chlorinated drinking water
caused by members of shigella genus (e.coli relative) transmitted through food and water contaminated with human fecal matter. bacteria multiply inside macrophages and invade intestinal cells. inflammation and cell death cause dysentery.
Some strains of shigellosis are abel to produce..
shiga toxin. cytotoxin that kills cells in capillaries and kidneys. causes hemolytic ureic syndrome.
Treatment and prevention shigellosis
antibiotic combined with rehydration therapy. prevented with proper sanitation
E.coli found in intestinal tract of mammals. indicator of fecal contamination. most strains are members of normal microbiota. some possess virulence to allow them to cause disease
Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC)
produces an entertoxin (cholera like toxin causes watery diarrhea). self limiting
Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)
produces shiga toxins. inflammation of the colon, profuse bleeding, sever bloody diarrhea, effect kidney function (Hemolytic uremic syndrome)
Enterohemorrhagic E.coli treatment
antibiotics and rehydration therapy. antibiotic resistance is becoming problem
non typhoidal salmonella. transmitted in foods contaminated with animal fees. bacteria use invasions to enter epithelial cells of intestine/ endotoxin causes inflammation
Symptoms and treatment for salmonellosis
symptoms: fever, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea. treated with rehydration there[y (antibiotics harmful)
caused by salmonella typhi. transmitted by human fecal matter. more virulent than non typhoidal salmonella. endotoxin causes shock, organ failure and death. treated with bacteriostatic antibiotics
Clostridium difficile infection
resistant to antibiotics. colonized large intestine when normal microbiota is disturbed.. antibiotic associated diarrhea, nosocomial infection. may cause Pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of colon)
Clostridium difficile infection treatment
antibiotics, probiotics, fecal transplant
caused by enterovirus group (rotavirus, norwalk virus). self limiting (1 week) fecal-oral transmission
Symptoms, treatment, and prevention of viral gastroenteritis
symptoms: low fever, diarrhea, vomiting. treated with rehydration therapy. prevented with proper hand washing and some enteroviruses have vaccines
inflammation of the liver. caused by several diff viruses
infectious hepatitis transmitted via fecal oral route. causes acute infection, self limiting in a few months.
Symptoms and treatment to hepatitis A
symptoms: malaise, diarrhea, nausea, liver damage, jaundice. no treatment
Prevention of hepatitis A
inactive whole agent vaccine given to risk groups, post exposure passive immunity possible w/ pre made antibodies
serum hepatitis. transmitted by direct/indirect contact with infected bodily fluid. can be either self limiting acute or chronic infection. virus cells multiples in liver cells, lead to cirrhosis. viral DNA integrates into host cell as provirus
Treatment and prevention of hepatitis B
cannot be cured, may be treated with antiviral therapy to slow viral replication. prevention: subunit vaccine given to risk groups and children, avoid bodily fluids
transfusion associated hepatitis. transmitted via indirect contact (needles) 25 day delay between infection and detection. can be cured
Chronic infection of liver
no apparent symptoms for 20 years, eventually results in cirrhosis and liver cancer. no vaccine, treated with combo theory of interferon and antivirals
beaver fever, caused by giardia lamblia. transmitted by drinking water that has been contaminated with face matter from animals
Symptoms and treatment of Giardiasis
Symptoms: indigestions, nausea, flatulence, explosive diarrhea
caused by Cryptosporidium, transmitted by improperly treated drinking water. resists chlorine