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Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (17)
1

What are the 5 steps of the scientific method?

State the questions
Formulate a hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
Draw conclusions
Report results

2

What two types of questions arise when studying animal behavior?

Proximate and ultimate

3

What are proximate questions?

How does a behavior work? What mechanisms are involved?

4

What are ultimate questions?

Why did a behavior arise? What purpose does it serve?

5

What are Darwin's 3 main points?

Variation
Heredity
Differential reproduction

6

Describe natural selection.

Traits that interfere with reproductive success will diminish in frequency.

7

What does natural selection say about evolutionary change?

Evolutionary change will always be in the direction that promotes reproduction by individuals.

8

What is an example of a proximate question of the automeris moth?

What are the underlying muscular mechanisms that cause wings to flip?

9

What is an example of an ultimate question about the automeris moth?

Does wing flipping confer a survival advantage?

10

Who was Niko Tinbergen?

A Dutch ethologist who proposed the scientific study of animal behavior proceeds by asking 4 questions.

11

What were the four questions Tinbergen proposed?

Mechanism
Ontogeny
Function
Phylogeny

12

In relation to Tinbergen's 4 questions, what is the proximate question that describes the current behavior as it is today?

Mechanism (causation)

13

In relation to Tinbergen's 4 questions, what is the proximate question that describes the evolutionary history of the current behavior?

Ontogeny (development of behavior over lifetime)

14

In relation to Tinbergen's 4 questions, what is the ultimate question that describes the current behavior as it is today?

Function (adaptive value)

15

In relation to Tinbergen's 4 questions, what is the ultimate question that describes evolutionary history of the current behavior?

Phylogeny (evolution)

16

What did Alcock say about communication?

It is the cooperative transfer of information from a signaler to a receiver.

17

Define communication?

Action by one organism that alters the behavior of another organism that is adaptive to either one or both participants.