Flashcards in Lecture 13 Deck (29)
What birds of prey feed on eggs and nestlings?
Kookaburras, raven and silver gulls.
Who would natural selection favor in deceptive alarm calling?
Those who pay close attention to alarm calls. (life/dinner principle)
Describe functional deception.
UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS THE SAME SIGNAL WILL CAUSE THE PREDICTABLE RESULT BUT CONFER SOME BENEFIT TO FITNESS FOR THE SIGNALER (ACTIVE FALSIFICATION)
• 4. FITNESS BENEFIT IS A RESULT OF ACCESS TO RESOURCES FOR THE DECEIVER AND
INCREASED COST (OR NO NET GAIN) FOR THE DECEIVED
• MALE DOMESTIC CHICKENS ______ ______ USING A DISTINCTIVE VOCALIZATION
What does the production of the chicken call depend on?
depends on the composition of the audience.
What were the findings in the chicken study?
MALES PRESENTED WITH FOOD WOULD CALL WHEN IN THE PRESENCE OF EITHER A FAMILIAR OR UNFAMILIAR FEMALE, WERE LESS LIKELY TO CALL IN THE PRESENCE OF ANOTHER MALE
MALES WERE MORE LIKELY TO CALL TO AN EMPTY CAGE THAN A CAGE WITH A MALE and APPEAR TO SUPPRESS THEIR RATE OF CALLING IN THE PRESENCE OF MALE COMPETITORS
MALES PRODUCE MORE _________ ALARM CALLS WITH A CONSPECIFIC (EITHER A MATE, NON-MATE, OR MALE) THAN WHEN ALONE OR WITH A HETEROSPECIFC
BIRD (BOBWHITE QUAIL)
Males produced alarm calls at highest rates with a ________.
Alarm call rates in chickens appears to be affected by ____________
Males chickens were able to adjust their calling rate in various conditions. How?
GIVE APPROACH CALLS MORE FREQUENTLY WHEN FEMALES ARE IN THE AREA OR WHEN ALONE (PRESUMABLY TRYING TO ENTICE A POTENTIALLY UNSEEN FEMALE TO APPROACH)
REDUCE OR ELIMINATE CALLING RATES IN THE PRESENCE OF HETEROSPECIFIC AUDIENCES
In Jorgenson's topi antelope study, how were the topi described?
TOPI ARE GREGARIOUS MEDIUM-SIZED
• RUT TYPICALLY LASTS APPROXIMATELY 1.5 MONTHS
ADULT MALES DEFEND MATING TERRITORIES
What is tactical deception?
ACTS FROM THE NORMAL REPERTOIRE OF THE AGENT, DEPLOYED SUCH THAT ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL IS LIKELY TO MISINTERPRET WHAT
THE ACTS SIGNIFY, TO THE ADVANTAGE OF THE AGENT
• BROKEN WING DISPLAY WHERE KILLDEER LEAD PREDATORS AWAY BY FEIGNING INJURY
Both male and female topi alarm ________ to stalking predators.
Topi ________ at the predator with their ears pricked while snorting.
What are some reasons why males snort in the absence of danger?
Males may use false alarms to prevent the departure of receptive females from mating territories.
What are some reasons for deceptive alarm calls with mate access?
• FALSE ALARM SNORTS WILL BE INDISTINGUISHABLE FROM TRUE ALARMS
• FALSE SNORTS WOULD BE ASSOCIATED WITH
THE PRESENCE OF RECEPTIVE FEMALES
• MALES WOULD HAVE AN INCREASED OPPORTUNITY FOR SUCCESSFUL PAIRINGS
What are some mistakes with the reasoning of deceptive alarm calls in topi?
FALSE ALARM SNORTS WILL BE INDISTINGUISHABLE FROM TRUE ALARMS
• IF ALARM SNORTS PRIMARILY WARN CONSPECIFICS, THEN SNORTING WILL ONLY OCCUR IN THE PRESENCE OF CONSPECIFICS
(REGARDLESS OF SEX OR BREEDING STATUS)
In the playback study with topi antelopes, what were the 3 different male vocalizations used?
True alarm snort, false alarm snort, control grunt used as a territory warning
________ ______ were only produced in the presence of conspecifics.
What are some other reasons for deceptive alarm calls in topi antelopes?
Reciprocal altruism is the favor is likely to be returned in the future.
Males only emitted false alarms when an ________ _________ was in his territory.
There was a 3 min. median interval between attempt to leave and false snort. What does this mean?
POSITIVE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEPARTURE ATTEMPTS AND THE ONSET OF FALSE SNORTS
Why did male antelopes stand in front of departing females and false snort?
To alert in the direction that the female was moving, as if to say that there was a predator in front of them.
How did females respond to the playbacks of false and true alarms?
WHEN FEMALES HEAR AN ALARM SNORT (TRUE OR FALSE) THEY WILL RESPOND
BY WALKING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION FROM THE ALARM
MALES WOULD GAIN INCREASED MATING OPPORTUNITIES
• IN 10% OF OBSERVED CASES MALES WERE ONLY SUCCESSFUL AFTER SNORTING
Individual male topi snorted to the approach of a human. What does this indicate?
Alarm snorts communicate discovery to the predator.
False snorts were only emitted in the presence of ________.
Topi population is the study area is limited by _________ not resource availability.
Males stand to gain a greater benefit from what?
from manipulation than females