Lecture 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (28)
1

what is a tonotopic map?

particular case of topographic organization, begins at the cochlea, the structure in the inner ear that sends information about sound to the brain.

2

Lek breeding systems allow for what?

immediate comparison between potential mates

3

Anurans use what kind of breeding system?

lek

4

describe phonotaxis?

females will orient towards the source of the sound

5

How do anurans produce vocal sounds?

produced by forcing air thru a narrow opening (glottis)

6

describe stridulation in birds?

Specialized adaptations of wings
 Secondary wing feathers are enlarged and hollow with regular, raised ridges; neighboring feather tapers abruptly to a thin, stiff, blade

7

Sage grouse birds are ________ _______ birds

lek breeding

8

Sage grouse birds display what (Koch 2015)?

vocalizations and stridulations

9

What is male breeding success correlated with in sage grouse birds?

correlated with rate of display and vocal “inter-pop interval”

10

Male display of stridulation consists of what?

inflate air sacs
 First and second swish
 Pop
 The popping sound can carry over 3 kilometers

11

describe the stridulation in birds frm beginning to end?

The first swish is characterized by frequency upsweep
 The second swish occurs 1 second later and begins with a
downsweep followed by increasing frequency in the later half of the note
 These two sounds are frequency modulated (rare occurance in mechanical sound)

12

The swish sounds are highly __________ between males

variable

13

_______ swish durations have __________ frequency ranges.

longer, larger

14

Successful males tend to have larger what?

larger frequency ranges for a given duration in the 2nd swish

15

2nd swish downslopes of successful males have what?

Significantly larger frequency ranges relative to duration

16

Successful males increased the magnitide of the frquency to duration ration by doing what?

decreasing distance to nearest female (only for the downseep of the 2nd swish)

17

When trying to mate, what do the grouse birds do?

adjust their rate of displaying when females are present
 They also change the quality of their display as females approach
 Specifically they change the frequency range of the second swish downslope

18

Describe cicadas

insects with 2 pairs of membrane wings, prominent compound eyes and 3 simple eyes (ocelli)

19

Cicadas produce loud sounds by what?

vibrating membranes (tymbals) near base of abdomen.
--Rhythmical ticks, buzzes or musical sounds
--courtship songs

20

a tymbal is the most __________ sound producing mechanism known.

complex

21

How does a tymbal look?

Circular membrane surrounded by heavy rings on cicada’s abdomen

22

how does a tymbal work?

Contraction of tymbal muscle causes tymbal to spring back, producing loud click or pulse (120 – 480 per second); amplified by resonating cavity in the abdomen
 Loudest known insect sound: up to 100 dB at close range
 Most likely females detect and prefer males with the loudest “song"

23

Cicada sounds can carry for how long?

over 1 mile in distance through dense jungle
--sounds are produced between 2-4KHz

24

Auditory receptors of each species are tuned to the what?

carrier frequencies of their own species call.

25

Dense choruses of magicidada males are...?

avoided by predatory birds; the larger the group the more likely the birds will avoid the area.

26

Calls of cytosoma saundersii appear to what?

attract both males and females to a single area. The more individuals calling the more attractive the area.

27

Cicada call patterns and behaviors vary by _______

species

28

Among and between species show difference in ________ and _________.

synchrony and alternation
"domino effect": first song triggers others
"last words effect": competition for last song