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1

When does courtship begin?

two potential conspecifics of the opposite sex are in close proximity

2

What are 2 main functions of courtship?

Mate assessment
Mate synchronization

3

Why is the range of courtship signals short?

Reduce eavesdropping by predators or mate competitors
Keep nest hidden

4

________ signals are particularly effective

Tactile

5

Directional information is well coded by visual displays. What does this mean?

Direct attention toward certain individuals.
Color patches and displays

6

Courtship signals are what?

lower in amplitude but higher in duty-cycle than attraction signals.

7

Courtship signals are derived from what?

reproductive intention movements

8

What are some reproductive intention movements?

Mimic nest construction
Mate provisioning
Nest material manipulation

9

What are the 4 main types of models of mate choice?

Direct benefits
Good genes
Runaway selection
Sensory exploitation

10

Describe the direct benefits model.

 Males vary in a non-heritable phenotypic trait that indicates a direct benefit to the female and her offspring

11

Give an example of direct benefits model?

High song rates rates in birds linked to amount of resources in territory

12

Describe nuptial gifts?

Usually food, given to potential mates during courtship.

13

Given an example of nuptial gifts?

 Female scorpion flies alter amount of time spent mating in direct proportion to size of nuptial gift

14

What do male scorpion flies do?

Developed aggressive
foraging behaviors
 Will steal prey items from each other
 Males will mimic receptive females to steal prey items from other males

15

Why are costly and conspicuous male traits the target of female choice?

Such traits indicate some aspect of male quality. Provide offspring with higher survivorship

16

What are indicator traits?

traits females use to make selection decisions (good genes model)

17

How do female pronghorn antelopes select mates?

Based on ability to protect harem. Males with largest harems are presumably more successful.

18

Byers tracked survivorship of offspring based on what?

Mother's harem size.

19

What was the findings in the Byers study?

Offspring from ‘attractive’ males had higher survival
rates than offspring from other males

20

 Genetic models of this process are based on
coevolution of three characteristics:

Male indicator trait
Female preference for the trait
*extra one idk*

21

Why should honest indicator traits be costly to produce?

More costly traits are harder to ‘fake’ and increase reliability
 Low quality males cannot support the cost of these traits

22

The male trait (in the handicap model) and female preference are limited due to survivorship. Why?

Males w/o trait and its cost have higher fitness

23

Describe the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis?

-Females select traits that indicate parasite resistance
-Body coloration is reliably
linked to endoparasite
infection
-Endoparasites aren't visible but can have impact on outward expressed traits

24

What is major histocompatibility complex (MHC)?

set of genes that improves disease resistance

25

MHC is the most variable set of genes (no 2 ppl have matching MHC). Why?

Variability must be a result of preference for individuals with NON-matching MHC
 Selection is based on olfactory cues

26

What was the study Wedekind did?

Tested human preference for MHC variability
 Men wore the same shirt for two nights; women were asked to select the most ‘attractive’ shirt

27

What were the findings of the Wedekind Study?

 Women reliably selected shirts from males with the most dissimilar MHC

28

What study did Milinski do?

Tested cues used by female sticklebacks to
detect MHC quality

29

Sticklebacks range in MHC alleles from ___ to _____.

2 to 8

30

Individuals with more alleles have what?

Strong disease resistance