Flashcards in Lecture 15 Deck (34)
Birds will combine the same mechanism for producing
blue coloring with multilayer interference to produce ...?
UV plumage coloration
What to feathers contain that reflect mixtures of light wavelengths?
Matrix of large particles of air spaces, molecules of fat, protein.
Animals can cover specific areas of color and
______ them quickly when needed
What kinds of animals can change body color?
Amphibians, some reptiles, many fish,
cephalopods, and some insects can
change body color
What is rapid color change a result of?
result of rapid
dispersion of pigment granules in the dermal chromatophores
Usually involves the pigment melanin
and leads to darkening or lightening of the animal
___________ are large flat cells with
many dendritic processes extending outward from the center
Melanin concentrated in the ________ of the melanophore appears light.
In vertebrates, melanophores are innervated by what?
the autonomic nervous system
What is melanophore movement controlled by?
secreted from the pituitary and linked
to eyes or other light sensitive organs
What's the function of melanophores?
Function of color change is to match
body color to background
What is an example of temporal modulation of color?
Hermaphroditic belted sandfish.
Alternate btw male and female during courtship process.
What about belted sandfish tell you they are female?
Initially both fish appear bloated with
eggs and have dark tail banding associated with female behavior
Following vigorous courtship, the more submissive animal begins to display male typical
behavior and _______ coloration
Immediately prior to what does the male demonstrate colored banding?
prior to gamete release
This color changing patter appears to be controlled by the thalamus and areas in the _______ _______
The thalamus receives input from the retina and optic tectum
What types of animals have the most intricate forms of temporal color?
cephalopods (squid and octopus)
What are chromatophores like in cephalopods?
Chromatophores in these species are small multicellular organs consisting of a
central compartment connected to radial muscle fibers and motor neurons The central compartment contains brown, red, or yellow pigment
When radial muscles are __________, the surface is stretched and the color becomes visible
The movement of these organ is _________
By combining the expansion of its different colored ____________ the animal can
assume a variety of colors in rapid succession
What is the use of modulation of color?
Matching to background Aggressive interactions
What does the chemical reaction in biolumenescence require?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy from ATP pushes luciferin into an _________ state
In fireflies, the photon that creates the light is what?
Green and have a wavelength of 562 nm.
Light emission are _______ to produce
Glowworms flash to _________ predators
How to surface dwelling fish use biolumenescence?
as camouflage against deeper dwelling predators.
Firefly males can search for mates for how long?
A week or more, which is a significant portion of their life span.
Males elicit species-specific flash
patterns and are attracted...?
that indicate the appropriate pattern
Male _______ approach and are captured and eaten as prey by the cannibalistic _________
However, Photinus are only successful at
capturing about ____ of duped males
Photinus fireflies contain ______ _______ called Lucibufagans
__________ are noxious and distasteful to predators like spiders.