Flashcards in Lecture 19 Deck (34)
Redirected behaviors can become _________.
Give an example of redirected behavior?
When two herring gulls are
fighting they sometimes pull
large tufts of grass
What does the autonomic processes control?
fight or flight response
What is piloerection?
voluntary erection or bristling of hairs due to a sympathetic reflex usually triggered by cold, shock, or fright or due to a sympathomimetic agent.
Piloerection is typically used for _________.
Ritualized piloerection is localized to what?
to a smaller section of the coat
Feathers or fur become ____________ to help accentuate the display.
Describe the characteristics of autonomic feather movement
Sleeked body feathers are
associated with aggressive
Limiting heat trapping and
preventing overheating in
Fluffed body feathers are
associated with fearful displays
Describe the characteristics of ritualized feather movement?
Fluffed display feathers are
associated with aggression Sleeked display feathers are associated with submission/fear
Indicates an emancipation of this signal from the original cue
Sensory systems that are trained to separate signal from noise tend to prefer what?
Tend to prefer signals that exaggerate this difference.
Define supernormal stimulus
Signal pattern that is exaggerated beyond the normal range needed for detection.
Supernormal stimuli are selected due to _______ ________
Sensory preferences exist but are not expressed. Why?
Due to lack of available choices.
Given an example of super normal stimulus
Lorenz placed various sized artificial eggs around a bird’s
The birds always tried to retrieve the larges eggs; ignoring their own eggs (cuckoo bird thing)
Describe characteristics of supernormal stimulus
Larger than normal stimulus elicits a stronger than normal response pattern
If there is a genetic link to the increasing size of
stimulus, the change will be reflected in the population
Describe characteristics of the handicap principle.
Large signals are costly
and indicate reliable
Mate attraction signals
have to provide four main
types of information
What do cuckoo birds do?
•They lay their eggs in other species’ nests and transfer the burden of care to the parasitized species
Most species that are parasitized are ______ ______ providers.
Cuckoo hatchlings do what?
immediately remove any remaining eggs or existing nestlings
•The nest owners may even be present when this occurs.
What in the cuckoo nestling is considered a supernormal stimulus?
sight of a gaping cuckoo nestlings mouth is considered a supernormal stimulus
•Parent birds will work to provide for the cuckoo
The sight of a gaping mouth is a trigger to provide food.
The simplest forms of mate attraction result in what?
•one sex signaling
•Signaling only during receptive times
(these signals must be species specific and localizable)
Signals improve localizability by?
•Covering large distances
•Improving detection of source
•Occurring frequently in time
Signals should allow for?
of Differing levels of complexity in frequency, time or structure when compared.
Why are signals arbitrary in form?
Since they function to communicate identification and location
•Sender and receiver are unlikely to be in conflict.
What are some visual signals for mate attraction?
•Brightness contrast, movement contrast
•High repetition rate; rapid moves
•Species specific color patters or shape.
•Exploit sensory biases
Mate attraction signals should maximize what?
Distance of transmission
Wiley said forested habitats use what?
pure song whistles
How to females tend to signal?
Olfactory modalities (pheromones or scent marks)
Auditory and visual signaling is more ________ than olfactory signaling
Females of some species emit mate attraction calls. What are some examples?
•Elephants emit ultralow frequency sounds
•Females cats will calls during estrus
•Females mosquitos attract mates with near field created wing beats.
The signaling sex is stationary while the non-signaling sex does what?
moves to locate the sound source
What was found with African Guenons?
Rely on distinct shapes,
patches, and color
features on facial skin
and hair for species