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Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (44)
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1

What were some of the recent findings about trees.

Mother trees colonize their kin with bigger networks. They send them more carbon below ground. They reduce their own root competition for their kids. If the mom tree is dying they send messages on to the next generation.

2

What are some conceptual issues for signals in the case for honeybees?

Honeybees use visual signals to communicate food sources.
The inside of the hive is dar.k

3

What do Lek mating systems require?

Require males to demonstrate in densely populated areas

4

What are the fundamental features of communication systems?

Source
Channel
Receivers

5

What is not characteristic of signals?

Signals are almost never private. Auditory and visual cues are especially vulnerable.

6

Give an example of interspecies exploitation of signaling.

Toads

7

Give an example of intraspecies exploitation of signaling

Fireflys

8

Describe the morphology of a signal.

The signal produced in not the same as the signal received.

9

What are the 3 factors that influence signal structure.

Spreading
Attenuation
Interference

10

Define spreading.

Spreading causes signals to weaken due to lack of directionality.

11

Define attenuation.

Signals are affected by components in the environment.
Spectral and temporal components are really altered.

12

Describe interference

The resulting decrease in strength of a signal due to background noise.

13

Define an auditory domain

Characteristics of the habitat result in sound reverberation and attenuation.

14

Define a visual domain.

Differences in filtering and light intensity can change the appearance of natural coloring.

15

Range in signal intensity must correspond with what?

With perceptual abilities of the receiver, which must correspond with the range of producible signals.

16

What is important for perception systems to have?

Should be highly sensitive to the most common ranges of signals a species can produce.

17

Low frequency waves travel ___________ than high frequency waves.

further and more efficiently

18

What do birds have that humans don't

An extra color receptor that allows birds to see UV light. Helps them find food and mates.

19

What sensory specialization does a duck billed platypus have?

A set of receptors that are sensitive to electrical fields. Use their sense to hunt for prey.

20

What sensory specialization to bats and porpoises have?

Bats hear ultrasonic sounds
Porpoises hear a wide range of frequencies.

21

What sensory specialization does the star nose mole have?

Finger like projections around mouth to sense vibrations in the ground. Helps the mole find food and locate other moles

22

What sensory specializations to pit vipers have?

Organs that allow the snake to sense infra-red energy signatures. Helps to track prey.

23

What sensory specialization to other species have?

Vomoronasal Organ (VNO) to scent track and detect things.(The bigger the organ, the better abilities it has)

24

Animals that emit complex signals...?

Also contain perception abilities tuned to these complex displays.

25

What are detection thresholds?

Lower and upper limits of a signal that are still detectable by the majority of individuals.

26

What are detection thresholds influenced by?

Mechanisms of sensory system
Motivational and attentional state of receiver
Properties of the environment.

27

Studies of communication require knowing what?

What can be detected and what is acted upon under natural conditions.

28

Describe habituation.

Occurs at the brain level of perception
Signals are still being relayed from sense organs to the brain, but subcortical areas of the brain are altering level of response

29

Describe sensory adaptation

Occurs at the sensory detection level
• Sensory detectors are picking up the signal, but are no longer relaying information to the brain

30

Describe one of the habituation studies.

A sound is played repeatedly until an organism stops responding
• An alteration is made to the signal
• The level of reaction is quantified and associated with specific components of a signal