Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (44)
What were some of the recent findings about trees.
Mother trees colonize their kin with bigger networks. They send them more carbon below ground. They reduce their own root competition for their kids. If the mom tree is dying they send messages on to the next generation.
What are some conceptual issues for signals in the case for honeybees?
Honeybees use visual signals to communicate food sources.
The inside of the hive is dar.k
What do Lek mating systems require?
Require males to demonstrate in densely populated areas
What are the fundamental features of communication systems?
What is not characteristic of signals?
Signals are almost never private. Auditory and visual cues are especially vulnerable.
Give an example of interspecies exploitation of signaling.
Give an example of intraspecies exploitation of signaling
Describe the morphology of a signal.
The signal produced in not the same as the signal received.
What are the 3 factors that influence signal structure.
Spreading causes signals to weaken due to lack of directionality.
Signals are affected by components in the environment.
Spectral and temporal components are really altered.
The resulting decrease in strength of a signal due to background noise.
Define an auditory domain
Characteristics of the habitat result in sound reverberation and attenuation.
Define a visual domain.
Differences in filtering and light intensity can change the appearance of natural coloring.
Range in signal intensity must correspond with what?
With perceptual abilities of the receiver, which must correspond with the range of producible signals.
What is important for perception systems to have?
Should be highly sensitive to the most common ranges of signals a species can produce.
Low frequency waves travel ___________ than high frequency waves.
further and more efficiently
What do birds have that humans don't
An extra color receptor that allows birds to see UV light. Helps them find food and mates.
What sensory specialization does a duck billed platypus have?
A set of receptors that are sensitive to electrical fields. Use their sense to hunt for prey.
What sensory specialization to bats and porpoises have?
Bats hear ultrasonic sounds
Porpoises hear a wide range of frequencies.
What sensory specialization does the star nose mole have?
Finger like projections around mouth to sense vibrations in the ground. Helps the mole find food and locate other moles
What sensory specializations to pit vipers have?
Organs that allow the snake to sense infra-red energy signatures. Helps to track prey.
What sensory specialization to other species have?
Vomoronasal Organ (VNO) to scent track and detect things.(The bigger the organ, the better abilities it has)
Animals that emit complex signals...?
Also contain perception abilities tuned to these complex displays.
What are detection thresholds?
Lower and upper limits of a signal that are still detectable by the majority of individuals.
What are detection thresholds influenced by?
Mechanisms of sensory system
Motivational and attentional state of receiver
Properties of the environment.
Studies of communication require knowing what?
What can be detected and what is acted upon under natural conditions.
Occurs at the brain level of perception
Signals are still being relayed from sense organs to the brain, but subcortical areas of the brain are altering level of response
Describe sensory adaptation
Occurs at the sensory detection level
• Sensory detectors are picking up the signal, but are no longer relaying information to the brain
Describe one of the habituation studies.
A sound is played repeatedly until an organism stops responding
• An alteration is made to the signal
• The level of reaction is quantified and associated with specific components of a signal
Describe the study done by Seyfarth and Cheney.
Tested habituation in alarm calls in Vervet Monkeys
• “Leopard” versus “Eagle” alarms
• “Wrrs” versus “Chatters” • “Wrrs” indicate early stage
• “Chatters” indicate escalating aggression
What is an example of an ultimate effect of learning
Brother honeybees are related to their sister bees by a factor of what?
What is a sensitive period in the context of imprinting in geese?
for learning a period in the lifespan of an individual where learning or imprinting is greatly facilitated.
o Previously called a critical period.
a behavior pattern that reliably develops in individuals that receive adequate nutrition, and that is given in functional form on its first performance.
Describe an example of when it makes sense for nature to hardwire information or behavior into a species as opposed to having to learn it from scratch.
The bees have their waggle dance that describes where food is (they also use other cues like vibration)
Describe Group selection
where selection for “fittest” is of the group, not the individual.
Describe a problem with group selection?
The problem with group selection is that behavior that is strictly for the good of the species that confers no benefit to the performer will never emerge if there is an alternative, selfish behavior that does not require self-sacrifice.
Who came up with the idea of kin selection?
any form of behavior that provides a benefit for another individual at a cost to the individual performing the action (self-sacrifice)
Describe reciprocal altruism
sacrifices made by one individual that benefit another individual that is later reciprocated, so that both gain in the long run.
• Reciprocal altruism requires that the two actors recognize one another as individuals.
Define code breaking
The relationship btw triggering cue and behavioral response of a FAP can be observed when the behavior is exploited by members of another, parasitic species.
What will animals who "code break" do?
They mimic the triggering component of a FAP of another species.