Lecture 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16 Deck (61)
1

Are dogs color blind?

Dogs have the ability to detect
color in a limited scope
compared to humans. They can see more than black/white.

2

What study did Kasparson do with dogs?

Researchers trained dogs to associate dark yellow paper with food reward
The dogs were tested with either a dark blue box or a light yellow box

3

Dogs reliably selected the color matched box in ______ of test trials

70%

4

Visual systems have evolved to detect light. How?

Light sensitive organs have developed at least three separate
times in convergent evolution (for ‘camera’ eyes) This process triggers an electrical response in the receptor neuron

5

Vision provides a means of detecting objects in an animal’s
surroundings. What are these?

Luminance (intensity differences; brightness) – Reflectance (spectral composition; color)

6

Vertebrate visual systems contain two types of receptors:

Rods: low light conditions
Cones: light sensitive photoreceptors to perceive color.

7

Properties of color?

Brightness (intensity)
■ Hue
■ Chroma (degree of saturation
or purity of the dominant
frequency)

8

■ Cone cells in the retina contain a pigment called ______

opsin

9

Opsin

group of light-sensitive proteins found in photoreceptor cells of the retina

10

Opsin absorbs light energy which...?

activates retinal neurons and results
in action potentials in the optic nerve

11

Two different wavelengths of light
can produce the same ______ ____ _______ in a cone cell

pattern of activation

12

Outputs of ____ _____ are combined
and compared in the visual
nervous system

cone cells

13

Tetrachromatic color vision

based on four types of cone cells – Birds, lizards, turtles, and many fish

14

Trichromatic color vision

based on three types of cone cells – Old world primates, humans

15

Dichromatic color vision

– based on two types of cone cells – Most other mammals (dogs, cats, etc.)

16

Progenitors of mammals lost ____ of the four types of cones during a
period in evolutionary history when they were primarily _______.

two, nocturnal

17

Human color vision depends on interactions of three types of cones:

red, green, blue

18

Most other mammals are ________

dichromats

19

Dichromacy occurs in humans when one of the cone pigments is missing. What are the types?

Protanopia: no red receptor
Deutanopia: no green receptor
Tritanopia: no blue receptor

20

Several groups of
animals (birds,
reptiles, fish) have
_______ distinct types of cones

four

21

Bees are technically __________

trichromatic

22

Appears to be a trade in
sensitivity between _____ and
________ wavelengths

red, ultraviolet

23

Bees lack sensitivity to what?

red end of the electromagnetic spectrum

24

What are the properties of light used in animal communication?

Spatial characteristics
Temporal characteristics

25

What are spatial characteristics?

Variations in shape, size, surface features and color pattern.

26

What are temporal characteristics?

changes in pattern of color, surface, color change and apparent size/shape over time.

27

_______ ________ is very common for increasing visibility.

Brightness contrast

28

Forests have 4 major light habitats...?

Forest Shade: Yellow-green
– Woodland Shade: Blue-gray
– Small Gaps: Reddish
– Large Gaps: “White

29

Due to natural differences in these light spectra an animal my appear...?

very different in each light environment

30

What are some factors influencing the evolution of signals?

Properties of the physical environment where the signal is
generated
– Perceptual systems of individuals (potential mates, predators,
prey) receiving the signal
– The nature of the information signaled

31

What are the characteristics of warblers?

8 species, all small and green
No color patches
– Two wing-bars
Two wing-bars plus a crown-stripe
– All of the above plus white outer tail feathers

32

The distribution of patches across species is nested...?

Species with more complex patterns contain all patches of
simpler patterns

33

Species can be ranked from _____ to _______

duller, brighter

34

The ability to perceive visual signals is linked to what?

ambient light in the environment ( should have a direct impact on the evolution of coloring and
behavior signals)

35

Warblers that breed in the dark, dense habitats have what?

have a
greater number of color patches than those that breed in lighter, open habitats

36

Strong negative correlation between...?

between wing-bars (brightness) and light
levels in the natural habitat

37

Habitats of warblers?

Bright species have the most stripes; may serve as camouflage to predators
– If color patterns are used for intraspecies communication and the
visibility of these patterns depends on the background, then species in dark habitats should have the brightest coloring

38

Variation in display is associated with location of color patches. What are some of those locations?

Species with crown-strips bow their heads in display – Species with rump patches turn and flash their rumps

39

Display movements enhance visibility of the patches. What is an example?

Temporary effect due to specific movements

40

Since different species use different display patterns for intraspecies, how is communication linked?

the effects may be linked primarily to the differing
displays

41

What should provide evidence of the effect of
coloring

Altering the level of conspicuousness during display by eliminating or
enlarging color patches should provide evidence of the effect of
coloring

42

Males of the species inornatus were manipulated in 1 of 3 ways?

Control group: …
– Reduced: wing-bars were
painted with green paint – Enlarged: wing-bars were
painted with yellow paint

43

Signals were manipulated while males were establishing territories
and ______ to females arriving at the breeding grounds

prior

44

Males from the control group had ___________ sized territories

intermerdiate

45

Males in the reduced group had the __________ territories

smallest

46

Territory shifts were immediate with the ______ ________ male
taking over portions of the less conspicuous males

more conspicuous

47

Songs aren't used in territorial displays suggesting what?

conspicuousness is a primary form of communication between individuals
Increased territory size was correlated with increased levels of conspicuousness

48

Some minimal level of ___________ is necessary to maintain a
territory and reproduce

conspicuousness

49

What is sensory drive?

Conspicuousness is context-dependent thus the properties of the environment will bias the direction in which signaling characters
evolve

50

Color patterns, habitat choice, and courtship/display patterns
appear

evolve together

51

Properties of the environment can lead to what?

species divergence
whether or not perceptual systems vary

52

Properties of the environment appear to influence what?

the evolution of
conspicuous coloring

53

Coloring can vary across what?

body structures to take
advantage of the different levels of illumination

54

What is reverse countershading?

A form of conspicuous coloring that serves
to increase visibility of the animal that is illuminated from above

55

What is countershading?

protective coloration of some animals in which parts normally in shadow are light and those exposed to the sky are dark.

56

If ambient light is strongly colored, animals can use...?

Contrasting color patches – Color patch that matches the ambient light peak and surround it
with colors that reflect poorly

57

Define disruptive coloration?

uses patterning to
interfere with the perception of the true outline of the animal – …
– Disrupt a receiver’s eye from the animal’s outline
(like zebras)

58

Define movement contrast?

terrestrial and shallow water environments present a moving background – Wind, wave action

59

Animals attempting to stand out against this type of background use
_______, ________ accelerating movement

jerky, rapidly

60

_________ and striped color patterns often work together in creating
crypticity or conspicuousness

Movement

61

Stripes ___________ to the direction of motion conceal motion.

parallel