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Flashcards in Lecture 16 Deck (61)
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1

Are dogs color blind?

Dogs have the ability to detect
color in a limited scope
compared to humans. They can see more than black/white.

2

What study did Kasparson do with dogs?

Researchers trained dogs to associate dark yellow paper with food reward
The dogs were tested with either a dark blue box or a light yellow box

3

Dogs reliably selected the color matched box in ______ of test trials

70%

4

Visual systems have evolved to detect light. How?

Light sensitive organs have developed at least three separate
times in convergent evolution (for ‘camera’ eyes) This process triggers an electrical response in the receptor neuron

5

Vision provides a means of detecting objects in an animal’s
surroundings. What are these?

Luminance (intensity differences; brightness) – Reflectance (spectral composition; color)

6

Vertebrate visual systems contain two types of receptors:

Rods: low light conditions
Cones: light sensitive photoreceptors to perceive color.

7

Properties of color?

Brightness (intensity)
■ Hue
■ Chroma (degree of saturation
or purity of the dominant
frequency)

8

■ Cone cells in the retina contain a pigment called ______

opsin

9

Opsin

group of light-sensitive proteins found in photoreceptor cells of the retina

10

Opsin absorbs light energy which...?

activates retinal neurons and results
in action potentials in the optic nerve

11

Two different wavelengths of light
can produce the same ______ ____ _______ in a cone cell

pattern of activation

12

Outputs of ____ _____ are combined
and compared in the visual
nervous system

cone cells

13

Tetrachromatic color vision

based on four types of cone cells – Birds, lizards, turtles, and many fish

14

Trichromatic color vision

based on three types of cone cells – Old world primates, humans

15

Dichromatic color vision

– based on two types of cone cells – Most other mammals (dogs, cats, etc.)

16

Progenitors of mammals lost ____ of the four types of cones during a
period in evolutionary history when they were primarily _______.

two, nocturnal

17

Human color vision depends on interactions of three types of cones:

red, green, blue

18

Most other mammals are ________

dichromats

19

Dichromacy occurs in humans when one of the cone pigments is missing. What are the types?

Protanopia: no red receptor
Deutanopia: no green receptor
Tritanopia: no blue receptor

20

Several groups of
animals (birds,
reptiles, fish) have
_______ distinct types of cones

four

21

Bees are technically __________

trichromatic

22

Appears to be a trade in
sensitivity between _____ and
________ wavelengths

red, ultraviolet

23

Bees lack sensitivity to what?

red end of the electromagnetic spectrum

24

What are the properties of light used in animal communication?

Spatial characteristics
Temporal characteristics

25

What are spatial characteristics?

Variations in shape, size, surface features and color pattern.

26

What are temporal characteristics?

changes in pattern of color, surface, color change and apparent size/shape over time.

27

_______ ________ is very common for increasing visibility.

Brightness contrast

28

Forests have 4 major light habitats...?

Forest Shade: Yellow-green
– Woodland Shade: Blue-gray
– Small Gaps: Reddish
– Large Gaps: “White

29

Due to natural differences in these light spectra an animal my appear...?

very different in each light environment

30

What are some factors influencing the evolution of signals?

Properties of the physical environment where the signal is
generated
– Perceptual systems of individuals (potential mates, predators,
prey) receiving the signal
– The nature of the information signaled