Lecture 13 Eye Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 Eye Pathology Deck (63):
1

Name the following structures:

Purple = ______

Yellow = ______

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Purple = descemet's membrane

Yellow = trabecular meshwork

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2

Based on the changes that have developed in this specimen, what might be your diagnosis?

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Pectinate ligament dysplasia

(Pectinate ligament should be where the yellow line has been drawn)

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3

Abnormal development of the pectinate ligament can predispose an animal to what ocular condition?

Primary glaucoma 

 

4

This is normal, healthy tissue of the eye.

What are the highlighted structures?

Green = ____

Yellow = ____

Blue = ____

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Green = trabecular meshwork

Yellow = pectinate ligament

Blue = descemet's membrane

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5

  1. Where might you find aqueous humor, purple "x" or green "x"?
  2. What is the term used to refer to the angle highlighted in yellow?

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  1. Aqueous humor at the GREEN "X"
  2. Iridocorneal angle

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6

What is wrong with this occular tissue?

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Choroidal hypoplasia

(Choroid is circled in black but missing where the "x's" have been placed)

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7

Identify the labeled structures:

Yellow = ____

Black = ____

Green "X" = ____

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Yellow = photo receptors

Black = retinal pigment epithelium

Green "X" = sclera

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8

Choroidal hypoplasia is a component of which specific canine anomaly?

Collie eye anomaly

9

What is the definition of hypopyon?

Accumulation of purulent exudate in the anterior chamber of the eye

10

  1. Name the condition:
  2. How does this differ from other types of uveitis?

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  1. Acute uveitis
  2. Acute uveitis is characterized by the production of serofibrinous exudate, which accumulates on the surface of the iris and within the anterior chamber

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11

What is the term for the change that has occurred?

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Hypopyon

12

What is labeled here?

A.

B.

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A.  Ciliary cleft

B.  Anterior chamber

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13

What is the most common form of uveitis?

Anterior uveitis

14

Anterior uveitis is the inflammation of the ____ and +/- the ____  ____.

Anterior uveitis is the inflammation of the iris and +/- the ciliary body 

15

Anterior uveitis is a common cause of which type of glaucoma?

Secondary glaucoma

16

Based on the changes present and the cellular infiltrate, what is the name of this condition?

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Lymphoplasmacytic anterior uveitis

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17

  1. What major change has occurred here?
  2. What is this a result of?
  3. What type of uveitis does this change cause?

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  1. Lens rupture
  2. Results from trauma to the lens
  3. Phacoclastic uveitis

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18

This is a FIP (feline infectious peritonitis) positive cat.

  1. Knowing that information, what might you consider as a diagnosis here?
  2. Where does the exudate accumulate in this condition?

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  1. Pyogranulomatous uveitis
  2. Exudate accumulates around blood vessels in the uvea

19

What does PIFM stand for?

Preiridial Fibrovascular Membrane

20

What is anterior synechia?

Adhesion of the IRIS to the CORNEA

 

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21

What is posterior synechia?

Adhesion of the IRIS to the LENS CAPSULE

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22

What is entropion uveae?

INWARD contraction of the pupillary margin

( eyelid rolls in )

23

What is ectropion uveae?

OUTWARD contraction of the pupillary margin

( eyelid rolls out )

24

What is this condition called?

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Anterior synechia

(Iris adhered to the cornea)

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25

What are the BIG 3 intraocular neoplasms originating from the uvea?

  1. Melanoma
  2. Ciliary body adenoma or carcinoma
    1. Lymphosarcoma
    2.  

26

  1. From where do ciliary body epithelial tumors originate?
  2. Are these tumors more often benign or malignant?

  1. Originate from the epithelium that covers the ciliary body
    1. More often BENIGN

27

Uveal neoplasms are prone to _____ as they enlarge and may contribute to the production of a ____.

Uveal neoplasms are prone to hemorrhage as they enlarge and may contribute to the production of a PIFM (preiridial fibrovascular membrane).

28

What is the term used for a proliferation of fibrovascular tissue on the anterior surface of the iris?

Preiridial fibrovascular membrane

AKA rubeosis iridis

29

What are the 4 causes of intra-ocular hemorrhage?

  1. Trauma
  2. Inflammation
  3. Hypertensive vasculopathy
  4. Neoplasia

30

True of False:

Hypertensive vasculopathy may result in detached retina.

TRUE

31

True or False:

Neoplasms cause hemorrhage and PIFM formation, but retinal detachment is not observed.

FALSE

Neoplasms, trauma, inflammation, and hypertensive vasculopathy are all causes of intra-ocular hemorrhage, and intra-ocular hemorrhage can ultimately result in retinal detachment.

32

1. 

2. 

3. 

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1.  Preiridial fibrovascular membrane

2.  Fibroblast

3.  Blood vessel

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33

Preiridial fibrovascular membranes form on the ____ side of the ____.

Preiridial fibrovascular membranes form on the anterior surface of the iris.

34

What is your diagnosis?

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Uveal melanoma

35

  1. How would you describe this cellular infiltrate?
  2. What is your diagnosis?

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  1. Large, heavily pigmented neoplastic melanyocytes
  2. Diffuse iris melanoma

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36

What is your diagnosis?

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Ciliary body neoplasm

 

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37

What are the 2 causes of retinal dysplasia?

  1. Genetic 
  2. Viral infection (during development; BVD for example)

38

How does a viral infection during development lead to retinal dysplasia?

Infection affects neural tissue, affecting the eye and brain by association

39

What might cause retinal degeneration / atrophy?

(There are 7)

  1. Ischemia
  2. Glaucoma
  3. Nutritional deficiencies
  4. Drugs
  5. Genetics 
  6. Inflammation
  7. Detachment

40

Retinal degeneration usually manifests as the loss of one or more of what?

The neuronal components

41

There are multiple abnormalities with this specimen:

What are your diagnoses?

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Yellow = Retinal dysplasia and detachment

Green = Microphakia

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42

Which 2 types of cells are typically characteristic of infiltrates associated with retinitis?

Lymphocytes

Plasma cells

43

  1. What does SARDS stand for?
  2. What type of cells are degenerated in this condition?

  1. Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration
  2. Photoreceptors & possibly outer nuclear cell layers

44

What condition is the "opposite" of SARDS in terms of cell degeneration?

Glaucoma

45

What are the labeled areas:

Yellow?

Red?

Black?

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Yellow = inner nucelar layer

Red = outer nuclear layer

Black = retinal pigmental epithelium

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46

Which structures are labeled here?

Red = ____

Yellow = ____

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Red = retina

Yellow = ganglion cell

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47

What is the name of this condition?

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Sudden acquired retinal degeneration

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48

Labeled structures:

Yellow = ____

Red = ____

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Yellow = outer nuclear layer

Red = photoreceptor cells

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49

What is the name of this condition?

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Glaucoma

50

  1. What is the name of this condition?
  2. What is an accurate description of the cellularity?

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  1. Retinal atrophy
  2. Hypocellular

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51

What might cause retinal detachment?

(3 causes)

  1. Hemorrhage
  2. Transudate from hypertensive vasculopathy
  3. Exudate

52

True or False:

  1. Retinal detachment involves retinal separating from the retinal pigment epithelium
  2. In combination with retinal detachment, retinal pigment epithelium will often hypertrophy

  1. True
  2. True

53

What change has occurred here?

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Retinal detachment

54

  1. Where is the retina attached within the globe?
  2. How is the retina held into place elsewhere?

 

  1. Optic nerve & where it interacts with the ciliary body
  2. Held in place by the vitreous body

55

True of False:
Microphakia is a genetic disorder

FALSE

Microphakia is a congenital defect

56

What is microphakia?

Small, underdeveloped lens

57

What are 3 specific causes of cataracts?

  1. Congenital 
  2. Aging
  3. Diabetes mellitus

58

Explain the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus leading to development of cataracts.

Diabetes mellitus = hyperglycemia --> glucose gets into cells --> glucose converted into sorbitol --> sorbitol pulls fluid in --> causes swelling and opacity of the lens

59

What are the 4 reactions of the lens to injury?

  1. Microphakia
  2. Cataract
  3. Nuclear sclerosis
  4. Phacitis

60

What is your diagnosis?

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Bilateral glaucoma

61

This is a picture of a cataract histologically; what are the labeled structures:

A?

B?

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A = swollen cortical fibers

B = fragmented cortical fibers

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62

How might the retinal react to injury?

(4 ways)

  1. Dysplasia
  2. Inflammation
  3. Degeneration/atrophy
  4. Detachment

63