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Flashcards in Respiratory 1 Deck (83):
1

What are the 5 components of the upper respiratory tract?

  1. Nasal cavity
  2. Sinuses
  3. Nasopharynx
  4. Larynx
  5. Trachea

2

What are the 4 primary frunctions of the upper respiratory tract?

  1. Warm & humidify air
  2. Cleanse air
  3. Initial defense against pathogens
  4. Conduct air to lower respiratory tract

3

What is the #1 goal of the upper respiratory tract?

To condition/clean the air prior to reaching the lungs

4

What is the #2 goal of the upper respiratory tract?

Move air to/from lungs as efficiently as possible 

5

Which structural feature of the upper respiratory tract allows for air turbulence?

Convolutions & branching tubular structure

6

What are the 3 mechanisms by which particulates are removed from the upper respiratory tract?

  1. Coughing
  2. Sneezing
  3. Mucociliary escalator

7

What are the 2 components of the mucociliary escalator?

  1. Surface mucus
  2. Cilia

8

What are the 2 basic layers of the mucociliary escalator surface mucus?

  1. The lower, liquid layer
  2. The viscous surface gel layer

9

What are 2 contents of the mucociliary escalator mucus layer that neutralize and remove pathogens?

  1. Immunoglobulin
  2. Antimicrobial substances

10

What is the primary antibody in the mucus of the mucociliary escalator?

IgA

11

The normal movement of the cilia of the tracheal epithelium has been impaired.

What is this condition called?

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 

12

True or False:

Bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles all have glands.

FALSE

Bronchi & bronchioles have glands 

Terminal & respiratory bronchioles do NOT

13

What are 2 functions of the alveoli?

  1. Gas exchange
  2. Acid-base balance

14

What type of cells make up the type I pneumocytes of the alveoli?

Simple squamous epithelium

15

  1. What type of cells make up the type II pneumocytes of the alveoli?
  2. What do these cells produce?

  1. Cuboidal epithelial cells
  2. Produce surfactant

16

True or False:

  1. Bronchi and bronchioles are made up of a columnar epithelium.
  2. Terminal bronchioles are ciliated.
  3. Respiratory bronchioles are made up of a cuboidal epithelium.

  1. TRUE
  2. FALSE - terminal bronchioles & respiratory bronchioles are NON-ciliated
  3. TRUE

17

In which of the following are goblet cells located?

Bronchi

Bronchioles

Terminal bronchioles

Respiratory bronchioles

Bronchi 

Bronchioles 

18

What are the 3 types of cells that make up or are present within the alveoli?

  1. Simple squamous epithelium (type I pneumocytes)
  2. Cuboidal epithelium (type II pneumoncytes)
  3. Alveolar macrophages

19

  1. What makes up the "final line" of defense in the alveoli?
  2. What is the specific function of this particular line of defense?

  1. Alveolar macrophages
  2. Phagocytizes and removes material

20

What are the labeled cell types?

A.

B.

C.

Q image thumb

A.  Alveolar type II pneumocyte

B.  Alveolar type I pneumocyte

C.  Alveolar capillary

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21

  1. How do cold temperatures affect cilia?
  2. How does this affect the amount of mucus present in the upper respiratory tract?

  1. Cilia become SLUGGISH or STOP in cold temperatures
  2. Mucus THICKENS with the cold

22

  1. What type of environmental conditions might dry out the mucus in the upper respiratory tract?
  2. What affect does this have on mucus clearance?

  1. HEAT, LOW HUMIDITY, and DEHYRATION dry out the mucus
  2. This DECREASES mucus clearance

23

Viral infections, such as BVD, can cause a decrease in the production of what substances in the surface mucus?

Antimicrobial substances 

(Ex: interferon, defensin, etc.)

24

List at least 3 impairments to the respiratory defense mechanisms

Decreased immune response:

Immunodeficiency disorders (including stress)

Viruses  (FIV, BVD)

 

Airway epithelial damage:

Bacteria (Mycoplasma, Bordetella)

Viruses (Influenza)

Air pollutants (dust)

Chemicals 

 

25

What is known as the "most costely disease of beef cattle"?

Bovine shipping fever

26

What are the 3 GENERAL causes of bovine shipping fever?

Stress

Dust/ammonia

Viruses

27

  1. What are the 4 viruses that could contribute to bovine shipping fever?
  2. Which of these viruses causing an immunosuppression?
  3. Which of these viruses decreases mucociliary clearance, altering innate immunity?

  1. BVD, IBR, PI3, BRSV
  2. BVD
  3. IBR, PI3, BRSV

28

BVD suppresses _____ _____ function and causes a sustained _____.

BVD suppresses alveolar macrophage function and causes a sustained neutropenia.

29

Complex interactions between environmental influences + multiple pathogens = _____ ______ _____

Respiratory disease complex

CIRD = canine infectious respiratory disease

BRDC = bovine respiratory disease complex

PRDC = porcine respiratory disease complex

30

What 2 gross changes might you see in a lung with mild injury and acute inflammation?

Hyperemia

Serious exudate

31

  1. What type of exudate might you see with a chronic inflammation?
  2. Which 2 structures would undergo hyperplasia as part of a chronic inflammation?

  1. Thick, mucoid exudate
  2. Goblet cells & mucous glands

32

What type of change is the following describing?

Loss of mucocilliary apparatus (no cilia)

Mucosal drying (no goblet cells)

Microfloral change

Squamous metaplasia 

33

With an infection of the upper respiratory tract, what clinical signs might you see?

Nasal discharge

Sneezing

Runny eyes

Cough

Fever

34

The following refer to upper respiratory tract infections in DOGS:

  1. What are 4 common viral causes?
  2. What is 1 common bacterial cause?
  3. What is 1 common fungal cause?

  1. Distemper, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza
  2. Bordetella
  3. Aspergillus

35

The following refer to upper respiratory tract infections of CATS:

  1. What are 2 common viral causes?
  2. What is 1 common bacterial cause?
  3. What is 1 fungal cause?

  1. Herpes, calicivirus
  2. Chlamydia
  3. Cryptococcus

36

The following refer to upper respiratory tract infections in EQUINE:

  1. What are 4 common viral causes?
  2. What is 1 common bacterial cause?
  3. What is 1 common fungal cause?

  1. Herpes, influenza, adenovirus, parainfluenza
  2. Streptococcus equi (Strangles)
  3. Aspergillus

37

The following refer to upper respiratory tract infections in BOVINE:

  1. What is 1 commone viral cause?
  2. What is 1 common bacterial cause?

  1. Herpes
  2. Fusobacterium necrophorum (calf diphtheria)

38

One more!!  The following refer to upper respiratory tract infections in SWINE:

  1. What are 3 common viral causes?
  2. What are 2 common bacterial causes?
  3. What is the condition called caused by those bacteria?

  1. Herpes, influenza, cytomegalovirus
  2. Bordetella, pasteurella
  3. Atrophic rhinitis

39

  1. Describe the gross change you see in this steer.
  2. What is your diagnosis?
  3. What is likely the causative agent?

Q image thumb

  1. Adherent fibrinopurulent exudate on the nasal, laryngeal, and tracheal mucosa
  2. Fibrinopurulent rhinotracheitis
  3. IBR (Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis OR bovine herpesvirus-1) 

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40

In a horse you necropsy, you see a mild, necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchiolitis.  

  1. What is your likely diagnosis?
  2. What could be the 2 causative agents?

 

  1. Equine Rhinopneumonitis
  2. Equine herpesvirus-1 and Equine herpesvirus-4

41

You do a necropsy on a cat and find a mucopurulent, ulcerative rhinitis and tracheitis.

What is your diagnosis?

Feline viral rhinotracheitis

(Feline herpes virus)

42

You do a necropsy on a pig and find a firbrinonecrotic rhinitis and tracheitis.

What is your diagnosis?

Pseudorabies

43

Some forms of bronhitis and bronchilitis cause necrosis of the airway epithlial cells as seen in the image here.  

What are the causes of this necrotizing change?

Q image thumb

IBR

BRSV

SIV

Herpes

Histophilus somni

44

There are 2 forms of bronchitis and bronchiolitis, one of which is the necrotizing form. 

What is the other form?

Degenerative

45

What are 2 causative agents of degenerative bronchitis or bronchiolitis?

Mycoplasma hypopneumoniae

Bordetella bronchiseptica

46

An agent binds to cilia, causes ciliostasis, clumping and loss of cilia, and loss of epithelial cells.

Is that an example of a necrotizing or degenerative bronchitis?

Degenerative

47

What are the clinical signs of bronchitis/bronchiolitis?

Productive cough

Fever

Chills

Labored breathing (wheezing)

Depression

48

  1. Within inflammation in the airway, you get an increased or decreased production of mucus?
  2. You get bronchial constriction or bronchial dilation?

  1. Increased mucus secretion
  2. Bronchial constriction

49

With inflammation of the airway, there is an increase in exudate and cellular debris.  This can lead to partial or complete airway obstruction.

What 4 respiratory conditions could be sequela to inflammation and obstruction of the airway?

  1. Bronchiolitis obliterans
  2. Atelectasis
  3. Emphysema
  4. Bronchiectasis

50

What is bronchiectasis?

Permanent, abnormal dilation of the bronchi

51

  1. What is the cause of bronchiectasis?
  2. What is the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis?

  1. Acquired as a result of prolonged inflammation
  2. Severe suppurative bronchitis -> neutrophiil lysosomal enzymes weaken & destroy bronchial wall -> dilated, mucus filled aiway with decreased mucocilliary clearance

52

This is a lung.

What change is being illustrated?

Q image thumb

Bronchiectasis

53

What is bronchiolitis obliterans?

Partial or complete obstruction of the airway by fibrous connective tissue

54

The following refers to the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans.  Fill in the missing pieces:

____A_____ --> Loss of lining epithelium & filling of lumen with fibrinous to suppurative exudate --> ____B_____ --> Partial or complete airway obliteration by fibrous connective tissue

A.  Bronchiolar injury (Ex: SIV, BRSV)

B.  Fibroblasts migrate in & organize exudate

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55

The following image depits changes that are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans.

What specific change is the "?" depicting?

Q image thumb

Filling of lumen with fibrinous to suppurative exudate

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56

What is a consequence of a partial, valve-like obstruction within the airways?

Over-inflation (emphysema)

57

What is a consequence of complete obstruction of the airways?

Atelectasis

58

What is atelectasis?

Alveolar collapse

59

When bronchiolitis obliterans interferes with clearance of the airways, what is the animal predisposed to?

Bronchopneumonia 

60

If the structure on the left is normal, what do you call the condition on the right?

Q image thumb

Atelectasis

61

What do you call the failure of a newborn's lungs to expand?

Atelectasis neonatorum 

62

  1. How might you recognize atalectasis grossly?
  2. How might you recognize atalectasis microscopically?

  1. Grossly:
    • Color = dull red
    • Consistency = spongy
    • Appearance = depressed or shrunken compared to surrounding inflated lung
    • NO fluid or exudate expressed form cut surface
  2. Microscopically:
    • Alveoli are compressed into slits

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63

What are the 4 general causes of atelectasis?

 

  1. Lack of pulmonary surfactant (premature birth)
  2. Reduced inspiratory force
  3. Obstruction
  4. Compression

64

There are 2 types of compressive forces that could lead to atelectasis, thoracic effusion and pneumothorax.

How does pneumothorax cause atelectasis?

A lack of negative pressure causes the collapse

65

This lung has a well-demarcated, almost linear demarcation. 

1.  What is it dividing?   2.  What could have caused such a demarcation?

A.

B.

Q image thumb

  1.  
    • A. Normal lung
    • B.  Atelectic lung
  2. Thoracic effusion filling up the ventral aspect of the chest leading to ventral ONLY atelectasis (Ex. hardware diseae)

A image thumb
66

Based on the changes you can see here, what abnormality migth you find with the lungs?

Q image thumb

Atelectasis

NOTE: If there is a significant effusion, there will ALWYAS be assocaited atelectasis!!

67

  1. What do you call fluid accumulation in the air spaces and/or parenchyma of the lung?
  2. Can you name 2 general causes of this condition? (there are 4 total)

  1. Pulmonary edema
  2.  
    • Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
    • Low plasma protein oncotic pressure
    • Increased capillary permeability
    • Obstruction of lymphatic drainage

68

Describe pulmonary edema grossly:

Extra: What type of object might you compare an edemic lung to?

Q image thumb

Lungs are red, heavy, & swollen

Fluid oozes from cut surface

Clear fluid may distend interlobular spaces

Frothy fluid (foam) in airways and trachea

 

** Extra: Compare an edematous lung to a water ballon **

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69

Describe pulmonary edema microscopically:

Hypocellular amorphous eosinophilic fluid in the alveoli 

70

Bronchopneumonia is inflammation of the lung in which exudate accumulates primarily in the _____, _____, and _____.

Bronchopneumonia is inflammation of the lung in which exudate accumulates primarily in the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

71

What is often the most common cause of a bronchopneumonia?

Inhaled infectious agents (bacteria)

These localize at the bronchiole, alveolar junction

72

Describe bronchopneumonia grossly:

Q image thumb

Pattern: typically anteroventral

Texture: solid where affected (consolidated or hepatized)

Color: darker in color (hyperemia)

Express exudate from the cut surface

Lung may sink in formalin

Coughed up exudate may be present in the trachea

73

  1. Of the conditions we've discussed so far, what condition is the following:
  2. What gross features tell you this?

Q image thumb

  1. Bronchopneumonia
  2.  
    • Darker in color (hyperemia)
    • Exudate in the trachea from being coughed up 
    • Anteroventral pattern

A image thumb
74

Describe bronchopneumonia on a microscopic level:

Alveoli and adjacent airways are flooded with a fibrinosuppurative exudate

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75

  1. Which of the following is considered "liver like"?
  2. From which of the following can you express a thick exudate from the cut surface?
  3. Which of the following is assocaited with a white froth/foam in the trachea?

Bronchopneumonia

Atalectasis

Edema

  1. Bronchopneumonia
  2. Bronchopneumonia 
  3. Edema

76

  1. Which of the following will sink in formalin?
  2. Which of the following is most commonly a diffuse change?
  3. Which of the following will have no material expressed from cut surface?

  1. Bronchopneumonia
  2. Edema
  3. Atalectasis

77

  1. Which of the following is heavy like a water balloon?
  2. Which of the following has a soft and spongy consistency?

Bronchopneumonia

Atalectasis

Edema

  1. Edema
  2. Atalectasis 

78

  1. What is an abnormal accumulation of air in the lungs?
  2. What is the cause of this condition?
  3. What is an example of a condition that would cause this?

  1. Emphysema 
  2. Obstruction of airflow (air is allowed in but NOT out)
  3. Partial bronchiolitis obliterans

79

What do you call this microscopic change?

Q image thumb

Emphysema

80

What is it called when air ruptures into the interlobular septa?`

Interstitial emphysema 

81

  1. What change is this image depicting?
  2. In which species does occur?
  3. Why does this occur in that specis?

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  1. Intertitial emphysema
  2. Cattle
  3. Cattle lack collateral ventilation & have wide interlobular septae

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82

You have a lung lesion with the following characteristics:

  • Distention and rupture of alveolar walls
  • A creptius feel when palpated
  • Large pockets throughout the surface

What is this condition called?

Q image thumb

Emphysema 

83

See how much you've learned!

Based on the histology slide provided, what is your best morphilogic diagnosis?

Q image thumb

Bronchopneumonia with bronchiectasis (dilation of the aiway)

A image thumb