Lecture 7 Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7 Urinary System Deck (47):
1

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

Nephron

2

Which structures make up the upper urinary tract?

  1. Kidneys
  2. Ureters

3

Which structures make up the lower urinary tract?

  1. Urinary bladder
  2. Urethra

4

What structures make up the renal corpuscle?

  1. Glomerulus
  2. Bowman's capsule
  3. Afferent arterioles
  4. Efferent arterioles
  5. Urinary space

5

What is the vascular part of the renal corpuscle called?

Glomerulus

6

Name the structures:

1.

2.

3.

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  1. Proximal convoluted tubule
  2. Glomerulus
  3. Bowman's capsule

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7

Name the structures:

1.

2.

3.

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  1. Distal convoluted tubule
  2. Collecting duct
  3. Henle's loop

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8

Within which structure can the juxtaglomerular cells be found?

Afferent arterioles

9

What special structure can be found within the distal tubule? 

Macula densa

10

Name the structures:

1.

2.

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  1. Juxtaglomerular cells
  2. Macula densa

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11

  1. What are the structures circled in black ink called?
  2. Which layer of the filtration apparatus are they attached to?

 

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  1. Podocytes
  2. Basement membrane

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12

What are the three layers of the filtrating membrane of the glomerulus?

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  1. Podocytes
  2. Glomerular basement membrane
  3. Fenestrated endothelial cells

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13

What is the net charge of the glomerular basement membrane?

Negative

14

Would the blood pressure within glomeruli be high or low?

 

High

 

15

Nephrin is a structural component of what structure?

Slit diaphragm of glomerular podocytes

16

Renal disease where the slit diaphragm nephrin is lost will cause leakage of what into the urine?

Protein

17

  1. Podocyte pedicels are covered in what?
  2. Is this glycoprotein positively or negatively charged?

  1. Podocalyxin
  2. Negatively charged

18

  1. What type of cell are the mesangial cells?
  2. Name one thing these cells produce.

  1. Phagocytic cells
  2. Produce (1) cytokines and (2) a matrix that fills glomeruli

19

The follow is a picture of a typical glomerulus.  Which color dot most accurately depicts where mesangial cells might be located?

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Red - mesangial cells can most commonly be found in the "middle" of the glomerulus 

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20

The following depicts the filtration membrane of the glomerulus.  Name the two structures highlighted:

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Blue: podocytes foot processes

Yellow: double basement membrane

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21

The following is a high magnification view of a filtering apparatus.  Name the highlighted structures: 

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Purple: podocyte

Yellow: podocyte foot process

Green: fenestrated endothelium

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22

List 5 functions of the kidney.

  1. Maintain acid/base balance
  2. Maintain ion balances
  3. Rid metabolic wastes
  4. Regulate water volume in the body
  5. Endocrine functions 
  6.  

23

What cells within the kidney produce renin and where specifically are these cells located?

Juxtaglomerular cells, located in the afferent arterioles

24

How might a decrease in renal mass lead to anemia?

Decreased production of erythropoietin

25

  1. Give an example of a molecule within the body that is filtered but NOT resorbed within the kidneys.
  2. This substance is a good indicator of what renal value?

  1. Creatinine
  2. GFR (glomerular filtration rate)

26

What determines the rate at which componds are cleared from the blood?

Glomerular filtration rate

27

The ability to retain water within the body and concentrate urine leaving the body is dependent on maintaing a _____ state within the medullary interstitium.

Hyperosmotic 

28

Select the correct statement:

a.) Water moves from an area of high osmolarity to an area of low osmolarity

b.) Water moves from an area of low osmolarity to an area of high osmolarity

b.) Water moves from an area of low osmolarity to an area of high osmolarity 

29

What determines the rate at which componds are cleared from the blood?

Glomerular filtration rate

30

Order the following (1, 2, and 3) in order from the least to the greatest osmolarity:

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3, 1, 2

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31

In terms of GFR, if the filtration rate is high, the clearance rate would be what, high or low?

High

32

In terms of creatinine, its concentration within the blood should be directly related to what value?

Its clearance rate

33

Azotemia is associated with an excess of what in the blood?

Nitrogenous waste products (urea, creatinine)

34

  1. Azotemia due to decreased renal blood flow is called what?
  2. Give 1-2 examples of scienerios where this type of azotemia might be present.

  1. Pre-renal azotemia
  2. (1) dehydration or (2) overall blood loss

35

Azotemia due to a lesion in the kidney can be referred to as ____ azotemia.

Renal azotemia

36

  1. Azotemia due to an obstruction within the lower urinary tract can be referred to as ____ azotemia.
  2. Give an example of a scienerio where an animal might present with this type of azotemia.

  1. Post-renal azotemia
  2. Blocked tom cat

37

List 3 ways nephrons may react to the injury or loss of other nephrons.

  1. Shunting of blood to remaining nephrons
  2. Hypertrophy ("supernephron")
  3. Increased SNGFR (single nephron GFR)

38

When SNGFR (single nephron GFR) increases, what values must change within those individual nephrons to maintain TGFR (total GFR)?

  1. Flow rate increases
  2. Solute load increases
  3. Ultrafiltrate volume increases

39

What is a consequence of over-perfusion injury to glomeruli?

Glomerulosclerosis

40

An animal that has lost the ability to resorb water will have what for a urine specific gravity?

Low urine specific gravity

41

What is the "isosthenuric range" of urine specific gravity?

A range that is similar to serum or filtrate as it is formed (1.010)

42

The ability to conserve water and concentrate urine is thanks to what setup within the kidney?

The counter current multiplier system

43

To function adequately, what 3 elements does the counter current multiplier system require?

  1. Intact tubules
  2. Appropriate flow rate
  3. Osmotic gradient (hyperosmotic medullary interstitium)

44

Glomerular amyloidosis is the deposition of what within the glomerulus?

Serum amyloid A protein

45

What is the prognosis of glomerular amyloidosis?

Poor

46

Which specific structure witin the juxtaglomerular apparatus initiates the following step-wise process:

Senses low sodium chloride levels, thus stimulating the release of renin.  This then activates the renin-angiotensinogen system, better allowing the body to maintain sodium and water levels and keep GFR within its normal range.

Macula densa

47

List 3 adaptations to the loss of functional nephrons.

  1. Shunting of blood to remaining nephrons
  2. Hypertrophy of remaining nephrons ("supernephron")
  3. Increased single nephron GFR in functional nephrons