Lecture 15 - Nutrients for Blood Health Flashcards Preview

Food and Nutrition 1030 > Lecture 15 - Nutrients for Blood Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 15 - Nutrients for Blood Health Deck (56)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the composition of blood?

55% plasma (mostly water)
<1% white blood cells
45% red blood cells

2

Why is vitamin K important for blood health?

Vit K is a coenzyme in the synthesis of proteins involved in blood clotting
-also coenzyme in bones

3

What are the 2 groups of vitamin K and how do they differ?

Phylloquinone (plant form)

Menaquinone (bacteria in gut)

4

What are sources of vitamin K?

Green leafy veggies, soy beans, canola oils

5

What is the deficiency accosted with low vitamin K?

Lack of normal blood clotting

6

Who is more at risk of developing vitamin K deficiency?

Newborns
Elderly

7

How many pathways are involved in blood clotting?

Many pathways lead to the same destination

8

How many proteins that are involved in these pathways are associated with vitamin K?

4 proteins in the pathways require vitamin K to become active

9

What are the 2 states of Fe, and how do they differ?

Ferrous (++)
-body absorbed this Fe in the reduced state

Ferric (+++)

10

Can Ferrous and Ferric Fe convert back and forth?

Yes, very easily

11

What is the difference between myoglobin and hemoglobin?

Myo: transports O2 to muscles and only has 1 subunit

Hemo: transports O2 in blood and has 4 subunits

12

Where do you find the highest source of heme Fe?

In blood and muscle products

13

In a piece of meat, what % if heme vs non heme Fe?

40% Heme iron

60% non-heme iron

14

What is the % of heme vs non-heme in food that isnt meat?

100% non heme Fe

15

How is Fe absorbed?

Fe goes into intestine and in mucosal cells of intestinal wall. If body doesn't need Fe it stays in cells until they die and are excreted (Fe included). When the body needs Fe it is bound to ferritin (storage protein) in the mucosal cells until the body sends transferrin to pick up the Fe to take it into the blood

16

What is our need for Fe dependent on?

Need for Fe

Whether Fe is heme vs non-heme

17

What is the absorption rate of heme vs non heme in veggie vs mixed diet?

Average absorption of mixed diet= 18% Fe

Average absorption of veggie diet= 10%

18

What are the factors that enhance Fe non-heme absorption?

MFP: When animal flesh is consumed it helps to increase absorption of non heme

Vitamin C

19

What are factors inhibiting the absorption of non heme Fe?

Phytates- in fibre

Vegetable proteins

Ca- with Fe inhibit each other

Polyphenols- All plant chemicals that give plants their colour

20

What is transferrin?

Transport protein of Fe that takes Fe to other tissues and bone marrow

21

What is ferritin?

The protein within the mucosal cells that hold Fe

22

What is hemosiderin and what does it do?

Stores iron at high levels only
-slowly releases iron to protect the body against free radicals

23

What is the lifecycle of Fe like?

Lasts for 4 months on hemoglobin then enters thee spleen and liver to dismantle the molecule for degradation or recycling. Fe is salvaged, transferred to transferrin and travels back to the bone marrow to be reused for red blood cell synthesis.

24

How do losses of fe occur?

Gi tract, blood loss, little from urine, sweat or skin loss

25

How is the iron balance in the blood regulated?

Hepcidin

26

What does hepcidin do?

Recognizes how much Fe is in the blood and lets intestines know how much to absorb (limiting absorption from SI).
-also controls how much of transferrin is made?

27

What is the most common deficiency in the world and Canada?

Iron

28

Who is most vulnerable to Fe deficiency?

Children in growing years
Women in child bearing/pergrnancy

29

How is blood lost?

GI disorders
Menstruation
Blood donation
Ulcers
Accident/Surgery
Parasitic infection

30

How do you assess Fe deficiency?

In stages