Lecture 1 - Overview of Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Overview of Nutrition Deck (29)
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1

What are ways in which people chose what, where and when to eat?

Preferences (taste)
Habit
Tradition
Social Interactions
availability
Convenience
Economy
+/- associations
Emotions
Values
Body Weight/Image
Health Benefits

2

What are nutrients?

The chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agent to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body tissues

3

What are the Macronutrients (energy yielding)?

Carbs
Fats
Protein

4

What are the Micronutrients?

Vitamins
Minerals
Water

5

What are the organic nutrients?

Carbs
Fat
Protein
Vitamins

6

What are the inorganic nutrients?

Minerals
Water

7

What is the energy yield for each macronutrient?

Carbs and protein is 4kcal/g

Fat 9kcal/g

8

What is energy density?

g per g and bite for bite, foods with a high energy density deliver more calories/g

9

What does the body use the energy yielding nutrients for?

Fuel - support body activities

Raw materials for building the body tissues and regulating activities

10

What many vitamins are there?

13 essential organic vitamins
-mix of fat and water soluble

11

Why do we need vitamins?

Support the production of energy

12

What is the downfall with vitamins?

They are vulnerable to destruction

13

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A D E K
-dissolve easily in fats and oils
-can be accumulated and stored in the body
-serious deficiencies
-found in meats, dairy, veggie oils, nuts, seeds and fatty fish

14

What are water soluble vitamins?

C B's
-stay dissolved in water
-extra secreted as urine
-not stored in bodies
-abundant in many foods
-sensitive to cooking and storage practices

15

What are minerals?

Inorganic substances required for body processes
-Na, Ca, Fe, K, Mg
-unaffected by digestion, all maintain their structure no matter what environment they are in

16

What are some mineral functions?

Fluid regulation
Bone structure
Muscle movement
Nerve functioning

17

What are the 2 types of minerals we consume?

Major and Trace minerals

18

What are major minerals?

Bodies require at least 100mg/day
-Amount present in the body is greater than ~5000mg
-Ca P Mg Na K Cl
-meats, dairy, fresh fruit and veggies, nuts

19

What are Trace minerals?

Body requires less than 100mg/day
-Amount present in the body is less than 5000mg
-Fe Zn Cu Mg Se I F Cr
-meats, dairy, fresh fruit and veggies, nuts

20

How many mineral are essential?

16
-none are energy yielding

21

Why is water important in our body?

Medium for all of life processes

Participating in metabolic reactions

Transporting nutrients to cells and waste away from cells

22

What are the DRI's?

Dietary Reference Intakes

23

What is the EAR?

Estimated average requirements
-the amount that covers 1/2 the population

24

Whats is the RDA?

Recommended Dietary Allowances
-Set well above the EAR covering about 98% of the population

25

What is the AI?

Adequate intakes
-Point that lies within a range of appropriate and reasonable intakes between toxicity and deficiency
-High enough to provide reserves in times of short term dietary inadequacies but not so high to reach toxicity

26

What is the UL?

Tolerable upper intake levels

27

What is the EER?

Estimated Energy Requirement
-average dietary energy intake to maintain energy balance
-based on healthy body weight and physical activity
-no UL

28

What is AMDR?

Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges
-45-65% kcal from carbs
-20-35% kcal from fat
-10-35% kcal from protein

29

How are the nutrient recommendations used?

-Estimates apply to HEALTHY people
- RECOMMENDATIONS are for the majority of people
-Achieve goals via FOOD
-Estimates apply to AVERAGE daily intakes
-Each has a UNIQUE purpose