Lecture 5 - The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches and Fibres Flashcards Preview

Food and Nutrition 1030 > Lecture 5 - The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches and Fibres > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 5 - The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches and Fibres Deck (86)
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1

Why are carbs important?

Good (and main) source of energy, especially for our nerve cells

2

What are the 3 Carbohydrates family?

Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides

3

What are monosaccharides ?

Single sugars
-Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

4

What are Disaccharides?

Pairs of monosaccharides
-Maltose, Sucrose and lactose

5

What are Polysaccharides?

Large chains of monosaccharides
-Usually glucose molecules stuck together

6

What is the body prime source of energy?

Glucose which is a monosaccharide
-also the most abundant sugar we consume

7

What is the difference between Glucose, Fructose and Galactose?

They are all formed of the same items but all differ in their molecular conformations

8

What is the sweetest monosaccharide?

Fructose
-what makes honey sweet

9

Where would you find galactose?

It is not found naturally on its own, it is bound to lactose
-usually called milk sugar

10

How does galactose split into lactose?

Lactase splits the bond between glucose and galactose so you are ingesting both but separately

11

Where would you find the disaccharide maltose?

It is not found in nature, but we do consume products that have been malted.
-it is usually a byproduct of starch digestion

12

What is the disaccharide sucrose normally referred to as?

Table sugar

13

What 2 monosaccharides make up the 3 disaccharides?

Lactose: Glucose + Galactose
Maltose: Glucose + Glucose
Sucrose: Glucose + Fructose

14

How are disaccharides formed and broken down?

Formed through condensation reactions

Broken down through hydrolysis reactions

15

What are the 3 main polysaccharides of carbs?

Glycogen
Stach
Fibre

16

Which of the 3 polysaccharides are similar?

Glycogen and Starch
-glycogen is the storage form go glucose in animals
-Starch is the storage form of glucose in plants

17

Where is glycogen stored?

In the liver and in muscle cells as energy reserves

18

Chemically what does glycogen look like?

They are highly branched chains of glucose

19

Chemically what does starch look like?

Long, branched (not as branched as glycogen), and unbranched chains

20

Where do we find most starches in our diet?

Grains, legumes and root crops

21

What is starch broken down into?

Glucose

22

Chemically what does fibre look like?

Since it is the structural component of plants, their chains of glucose are arranged in stackable rows in a complex way that our body doesn't have the machinery to break it down

23

What are the 2 forms of fibre?

Soluble and Insoluble

24

What can breakdown fibre in our bodies?

Gut bacteria

25

What are resistant starches?

Starches that act as fibres in which they have a hard time being broken down

26

What is amylose?

A straight chain of glucose stuck together
-can be broken down into glucose

27

What is amylopectin?

Is a chain of glucose branched out
-can be broken down into glucose

28

Where does the digestion of carbs start?

In the mouth with an enzyme

29

What is dietary fibre?

The non digestible part of plants (the outsides of plants, nuts seeds and husks)

30

What is functional fibre?

Carbohydrates with known health effects, which is extracted from plants and added to foods