Lecture 17 - Adults and Aging Flashcards Preview

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What are some nutrients that affect immunity?

Fatty acids
Fe, Selenium, Zn
Vit A, B6, C, E, Folate


What does the immune system respond to the most?

Most sensitivity to changes in nutritional status


What compromises nutritional health in terms of our immune system?

Our nutrient needs increase while our food intake often decreases trying to fight an infection
-leads to a downward spiral that must be broken for recovery to occur


How might you look out for aml nutrition in the older population?

Look for how long their sickness period is and how severe it gets


What is inflammation?

Response to infection or injury


What is acute inflammation ?

-Increased blood flow and increased white blood cell count to the site
-Phagocytes engulf microbes
-Oxidative products are released to kill microbes
-Fights infections to promote recovery
-helpful for us


What is chronic inflammation?

Everything about acute and
- Sustained inflammation can perpetuate chronic disease
-all that constantly being active and released over a long period of time
-end up damaging the tissues due to free radicals being released constantly
-very harmful and damaging


What happens during chronic inflammation?

-Damages cells lining the blood vessels
-Immune system sends macrophages
-LDL cholesterol becomes trapped and engulfed by macrophage
-Macrophages swell and eventually become cells of plaque
-plaque encourages blood clotting


What is a chronic disease that is due to malnutrition?

Heart disease
Diabetes Melitus


How is COPD linked to malnutrition?

It is a lung capacity problem
-people are usually overweight


What is metabolic syndrome?

Is usually a combination of 3 or more of:
-Abdominal obesity (waist male: 102 cm and females 89cm)
-Triglycerides: greater than 1.7mmol/L
-HDL: less than 1.03 males and females 1.3
-BP: greater than 130/85
-Fasting glucose: greater than 6.1mmol/L


What is the relation between a diet high in saturated fatty acids, in Na and chronic disease?

Saturated fattyacids: There is a claim that medium and shorter chain fatty acids aren't as bad for you ebcasye they re more readily absorbed

Na: higher Na leads to an increase in BP which can lead to hypertention

Genetics mostly determine this


What are the main diets to help with metabolic syndrome ?

Mediterranean: because of olive oil

DASH: reduce Na by consuming whole grains and proteins

Portfolio diet: taking pieces from all kinds of diets and putting them together


How is type 2 diabetes maintained ?

-Consistant monitoring of glucose
-eat at least 1/2 whole grains
-Sugar need not be avoided
-Limit saturated fat intake to <7%
-Protein intake as currently consumed
-alcohol in moderation


How does diet affect cancer indicators?

consuming these are linked to 1/3 of all cases
-high intake of alcohol
-Grilling over direct flame
-Diets high in processed meat consumption
-Fried foods


In terms of cancer indicators, what about carcinogens are we more concerned about?

For most it is the process of the food prep that causes the carcinogens
-charing of grilled meat
-Frying byproduct is from the starches


What are some cancer promoters?

Animal fats and some vegetable fats


What are some cancer anti-promoters?

Fruits and veggies (antioxidants, polyphenols)
Garlic (anti-inflammatory)
Omega 3s


Why is inflammation a good thing?

Plays a crucial role in protecting our bodies from forge in invaders
-chronic inflammation can lead to chronic disease development


Why is the aging population of concern?

In 2036 there will be 10.4 million Canadians above the age of 65.
-we will be required to do more for them with the same budget


What is the main thing to help agin adults?

Nutritious diet, regular physical activity throughout life can help prevent or delay the onset of chronic disease and help keep adults happy and productive in their later years


Because there is such diversity in older adults, what can disease be attributed too?

Environmental factors


Can you avoid aging?

Not really, it is programmed in our genes but slowed by our lifestyle


What are the main observations in older adults healthy habits?

-Eating well balanced meals
-Engaging in physical activity
-Not smoking
-Sleeping regularly
-Maintaining healthy body weight
-Absence or moderate use of alcohol


Why is physical activity good for older adults?

-increase flexibility, balance, posture, and mobility
-most powerful indicator of mobility in later years


Why do we see declines in muscle mass and strength as we age?

increased vulnerability to falls
Potential loss of independence


What happens when you restrict 30% of usual calories as you get older?

Longer life expectancy by 3 years
-likelyhood of a better quality of life due to less free radicals

On the other hand eating the same amount of cals but higher in antioxidant proves to do the same thing


Why is reducing oxidative stress a good thing?

Increases antioxidant activity and DNA repair
-can be similar to those following antioxidant and phytochemical rich diet


As you age, is it better to be over or under weight?

Over BMI greater than 27

Low can be more of an issue
-may be a signal of malnutrition
-unprepared to fight against disease


What happens to body composition as you age?

Decrease in bone and muscle mass(sarcopenia)

Increase in fat stores

Loss of mobility and balance