Lecture 7 - Lipids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7 - Lipids Deck (67)
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1

What are the 3 main types of lipids

Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Sterols

2

What lipid group makes up 90-95% of the lipids we consume?

Triglycerides

3

What are the 4 important structural parts that make up a triglyceride?

1. Glycerol backbone
2. 3 different fatty acid chains
3. An acid group (COOH)
4. Methyl group (CH3)

4

What are the 2 forms fatty acids can be in?

Saturated

Unsaturated

5

Why are the 3 fatty acid chains different?

They are composed of the materials that are present at the time. Whatever fatty acids are available will end up attached to the backbone

6

Are fatty acids organic?

Yes because it has C

7

How long can fatty acid chains be?

Length is dependent on how many C's its composed of

Long (14-24)
Medium (6-12)
Short (Less than 6)

8

How long are most fatty acids that we consume?

Log chain

9

Why don't we eat short chain fatty acids?

We can make them in our gut and then we can absorb them

10

What determines fatty acid digestion?

Chain length

11

What is a saturated fatty acid?

A chain fatty acid in which all C's are filled with H's

No double bonds

12

What is an unsaturated fatty acid?

A chain fatty acid which contains double bonds instead of H's

13

What are the 2 types of unsaturated fatty acids?

Monosaturated
-1 double bond
Polysaturated
-2 or more double bonds

14

What do double bonds do to the fatty acid structure

Double bonds change the shape of the fatty acid, making it less stackable

15

What is a double bond technically called?

A kink
-changes the direction of the fatty acid

16

What will happen to lipids when it is completely saturated?

They are more likely to be solid at room temp because there are no kinks in the conformation, making the triglycerides more stackable. Therefore there is less room for the lipids to move

17

What will happen to lipids when it is unsaturated?

The kink from the double bond will change the direction of the rest of the chain, making more room for the 3 chains tome around. Lipid is more likely to be liquid at room temp.

18

How do you identify the location of a double bond?

The C in the methyl group is Omega 1 C, then the next C would be 2 and so on.

19

Can you switch an Omega 3 fatty acid to an Omega 6 fatty acid?

No, they are completely different families.

You can add H's and double bonds to them, but they can not change families

20

What are the 2 essential fatty acids?

Linoleic acid
Alpha Linolenic acid

21

Which family is linoleic acid from, and what is its chemical name?

Omega 6
(18:2n-6)
-shortest 6 in their family

22

Which family is alpha linolenic acid from, and what is its chemical name?

Omega 3
(18:3n-3)
-shortest 3 in their family

23

What happens when we eat the essential fatty acids?

Linoleic acid is converted into AA

Alpha Linolenic acid is converted into EPA and DHA

24

What is the function of AA EPA and DHA?

All converted molecules are involved in cell signalling with opposing effects (6 vs. 3)

Act as hormones as cell signalling agents in a localized area

All have different effects so we need to balance these

25

How are triglycerides formed?

Condensation reactions
Glycerol+3Fatty Acids= Triglyceride + H2O

26

What are the 3 categories that oils fall into?

Saturated Fat

Monosaturated

Polysaturated

-characterized by how much of each group it has.
-all oils are a mix of the 3

27

What are examples of oils rich in saturated fat?

Animal fats (butter, lard)

Tropical oils (coconut, palm)

28

What are examples of oils rich in monounsaturated fats?

Olive and canola oil

29

What are examples of oil rich in polysaturated omega 3 fats?

Flaxseed oil

30

What are examples of oil rich in polyunsaturated omega 6 fats?

Sunflower and corn oil