Lipids Flashcards Preview

Biochem Human Form and Function > Lipids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipids Deck (42):
1

Why are lipids and fatty acids important?

Store energy
Form membranes
Carry info and signal
Surfactants

2

What is an example of something lipids carry info for and signal?

Inflammation

3

What are some additional services that lipids and fatty acids are used for?

Vitamins
Enzyme cofactors
Color ants

4

What is a fatty acid?

Carboxylic acid with a long hydrocarbon chain

5

What are three types of fatty acids?

Saturated
Unsaturated
Polyunsaturated

6

What type of unsaturated fatty acid does the body produce?

Cis

7

What is an example of a storage lipid?

Triacylglycerols

8

Membrane lipids are polar or non polar?

Polar

9

What type of lipid is not found in biological membranes?

Storage lipids (triglycerides)

10

Are storage lipids polar or non polar?

Non polar

11

What is the primary energy storage molecule?

Triglycerides

12

What are triglycerides important for organ systems?

They are the primary source of energy

13

Where do you get fatty acids from?

Dietary fats
Dietary carbohydrates and proteins

14

What transfers free fatty acids?

Albumin

15

What transfers triglycerides from adipose tissue to other cells?

Lipoproteins

16

What are three types of membranes formed by lipids?

Micelle
Bilateral
Vesicle

17

What are three major membrane lipids?

Phospholipids
Sphingolipids
Glycolipids

18

What makes a phospholipid?

Phosphate group
Glycerol or sphingosine linker

19

What makes a sphingolipid?

One sphingosine
One fatty acid
And a head group ( phosphate, glucose, polysaccharide)

20

What is the function of sphingolipids?

Direct signaling activity

21

What is the function of glycolipids?

Anchor proteins to membranes
Cell identification

22

Sterols are necessary for what process?

Endocytosis

23

What are functions of sterols?

Increase membrane rigidity
Reduce membrane permeability
Lipid raft constituent

24

What are three inflammatory lipids?

Prostaglandin
Thromboxanes
Leukotrienes

25

What makes a nucleotide?

Pentose ring
Base
Phosphate group

26

What makes a nucleic acid?

Nucleotides connected by a phosphodiester bond.

27

What is the foundational molecule of life?

Nucleotides

28

What are the functions of nucleotides and nucleic acids?

Information transfer
Energy transfer
Signal transduction

29

What direction is the genetic code read?

5' to 3'

30

What does RNA have that DNA doesn't?

OH on 2'
Uridine instead of thymidine

31

What are the two main sources of energy for life?

Light
Chemical

32

How do prokaryotes replicate?

Binary fission

33

Do eukaryotic cells have cell walls?

No

34

Where do you find DNA in prokaryotes?

Cytoplasm

35

How do prokaryotes obtain genetic diversity?

Mutation

36

What do you find in a gram positive bacteria?

Exposed glycoproteins layer
Thick peptidoglycan layer

37

What happens if the plasma membrane is too fluid?

Loss of barrier function

38

What happens if the plasma membrane is too rigid?

Restricts cell shape and transport

39

What is a lipid raft?

An area that is cholesterol and sphingolipid rich

40

What does a lipid raft do?

Limits fluidity
Regulates signal transduction and endocytosis

41

What is endocytosis?

Internalization of the plasma membrane

42

Where is the first place something that is endocytosed goes in the cell?

Early endosome