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Flashcards in Lower respiratory tract infections Deck (56)
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1

cause of CAP

strep pneumo

2

types of acute pneumonia

CAP
nosicomial

3

types of subacute/chronic pneumonia

tuberculosis
fungal
lung abscesses

4

major diseases caused by strep pneumo

pneumonia
meningitis
sinusitis
otitis media
bacteremia

5

less frequent diseases caused by strep pneumo

endocardiits
spetic arthritis
peritonitis

6

strep pneumo identifier

gram positive
cocci in pairs or chains
alpha hemolytic
catalase negative
optochin sensitive

7

main mech of strep pneuma pathogenicity

immune evasion
doesn't release toxins

8

mechanisms of immune evasion for strep pneumo

capsule prevents phagocytosis
induces inflammation which activates complement and attracts neutrophils

9

what stimulates strep pneumo cytokine production

peptidoglycan
teichoic acid

10

virulence factors of strep pneumo

adhesive cell surface components
neuramidase and hyaluronidase
capsule
autolysin
pneumolysin

11

adhesive cell surface components of strep pneumo

teichoic acid
choline binding proteins
protein A

12

neuramidase and hyluronidase do what

change ECM

13

capsule

prevents phagocytosis

14

autolysin

lyses cells which releases peptidoglycan and pneumolysin

15

pneumolysin

inhibits cillia and neutrophils
promotes inflammation
activates complement system

16

how is a capsule stained

antibody in Quelling rxn

17

anti capsule antibodies

appear 5-8 days post infection- marker of immunity
1/3 of adults make them, rest do not

18

capsular based strep pen vaccine

stimulates IgM and IgG production via capsular polysaccharides from 23 strains

19

protein conjugated strep pneumo vaccine

capsular polysaccharide conjugated to a protein (tetanus or diphtheria)
induces T cell memory

20

what vaccine do you give to

protein conjugated

21

what vaccine do you give to >4

capsular based

22

pathogenesis of strep pneumo

bacteria grow into alveolar spaces which activates complement and vasoactive factors
bacteria accumulate
exudate and WBC migrate into alveolar spaces

23

CXR of pneumococcal pneumonia

fluid accumulation in a lobe with no abscess

24

stage 1 pneumococcal pneumonia

alveoli fill with clear serous fluid and bacteria cells which proliferate

25

early consolidation phase of pneumococcal pneumonia

neutrophils and bugs infiltrate
antibodies produced OR innate immunity kicks in
CRP increases which activates complement system

26

late consolidation in pneumococcal pneumonia

alveoli fill with cellular infiltrate and bacteria--looks like liver

27

resolution in pneumococcal pneumonia

macrophages replace neutrophils and clear exudate
lung architecture restored

28

complications to pneumococcal pneumonia

pleural effusion
empyema

29

symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia

sudden onset chills and sweats
high fever
chest pain
cough, fatigue
tachy,
gray, anxious appearance

30

labs associated with pneomoccal pneumonia

low Hg
leukocytosis
capular detection in urine
PCR