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Flashcards in Medically Comprimised Children Deck (44):
0

What are medically compromised children?

Medical conditions affect dental care
Consequences of dental disease could be life threatening

1

T/F medically compromised children are high caries risk?

T

2

What are the two common cardiovascular diseases?

CHD and Aquired heart disease

3

What are more common CHD or Aquired in children?

CHD
80% of cases

4

What are the three types of CHD? And name the diseases for each category.

Cyanotic: occurs due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the lungs and entering the systemic circulation eg tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels and eisenmengers syndrome

Acyanotic:shunting (flowing) of blood occurs from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart due to a structural defect (hole) in the
interventricular septum eg. ASD, VSD, aortic and pulmonary stenosis, coarctation of aorta

Cardiomyopathies: IE, RHD

5

What are the acquired heart diseases?

Rheumatic fever and diseases of myocardium

6

What are the oral features for those suffering from cardiovascular disease?

- Increased risk of caries for primary and permanent
- delayed tooth eruption
- intrinsic tooth staining due to medication, diet or compliance

7

What are the aims of management for people with cardiovascular diseases ?

Eliminate the cause and risk of infection
Reduce the risk of bacterial endocarditis
Maintain good OH

8

What two medical treatment should you not offer to people upwith cardio disease?

CHX
AB prophylaxis Nice 2008

9

How should you manage pulpyally involved teeth in people with cardiovascular disease?

-extract pulpally involved primary teeth since vital, non vital and Pulpectomy are contra indicated
-permanent teeth Endo is indicated

10

What are the haematological disorders?

Vascular disorders: puroura, haemangiomas, Vit C def
Platelet disorder: thrombocytopenia, platelet function disorders
Coagulation defect: liver disease, haemophilia a, b and VWD

11

What are the oral features of those suffering from haematological diseases?

-Bruising of skin and mucosa eg petechiae, purpura and heamatoma
-excessive or prolonged bleeding following xla or trauma
-Spontaneous gingival bleeding

12

What are the medical implications of those that have haematological disorders?

Prolonged bleeding which may be excessive
Increased risk of infection
Anticoagulant consideration
May have other medical problems

13

How do you manage children with haematological problems?

Aggressive prevention
And liase with haematologist
Avoid extractions in general practice and multiple extractions done in hospital
Monitor blood values: should be more than 50000/l but prefer above 80000/l
Avoid extractions and do endo where possible and can be done without factor cover but do not over instrument
Avoid mandibular blocks and use infiltration
Avoid drugs that exacerbate bleeding eg NSAIDS
Use rubber dam

14

How do you manage an oral haemorrhage?

Identify site
Compress alveolus
Suture and pack
Apply pressure
Written post op instructions
Prescription of non aspirin medications

15

What is an immuniodef?1

Quantitive and qualitative defect in neutrophils, primary and secondary immunodef or acquired disorders

16

What are the medical implications for immunodef?1

Risk of sepsis
Opportunistic infections
Delayed wounds healing
Transmission of infection

17

What are the dental implications of immunodef?

Opportunistic infections: thrush, severe gingivitis, prepubertal perio , Recurrent herpes

Premature exfoliation of primary teeth

18

How do you mange immunodef dentally?

Regular reviews and prevention
Extractions or maintenance of carious teeth should be done on a worst case scenario during periods of immunodef
All mobile primary teeth removed at least two weeks prior to BMT

19

What types of malignancies account for 50% of childhood malignancies?

Acute leukaemias and tumours of CNS

20

What are the three management options for oncology patients and what effect have they had on survival?

Chemo
Radio
Surgery
Increased rates

21

What are the oral,features of potential maligancy?

Pain
Gingival swelling
Spon bleeding
Abnormal tooth mobility
Altered taste

22

What are the principles to the dental management of oncology patients?

Pre cancer treatment screen to eliminate all sources of infection
Emergency treatment should only be done in the acute phase
Ensure platelet levels are greater than 80,000 prior to surgery for haemostasis
Prophylactic antibiotics anti fungals and antivirals
If xla is required and neutrophil count is less than 1.8 * 10^9 then needs anti microbials
Delay any elective dental treatment until child is in remission or on maintenance chemo
Pulp therapy is contra indicated in the induction and consolation phase of chemo
CBA of endo in permanent teeth

23

What type of renal problems may we face as dentists?

Renal disorders : acute and chronic renal failure
REnal transplant

24

What are the oral features of people within renal disease?

Chronological enamel Hypoplasia
Intrinsic discolouration
Low caries rate
Gingival hyperplasia

25

What are the medical implications for people with renal Disease?

Often on steroids and immunosuppressants
Bleeding tendency
Poor wound control
Secondary infection
Hypertension
Osteodystrophy (hypocalcaemia )

26

How do we mange renal patients dentally?

Consult nephrologist
Postpone elective treatment until renal function restored
AB prophylaxis prior to surgeryb
Consider steroid cover
Extract pulpally involved teeth to reduce risk of bacteraemia

27

Which endocrine diseases can cause problems for dentist?

Diabetes
Pituitartu and adrenal disorders
Thyroid
Parathyroid

28

What are the problems for those suffering from diabetes ?

Poor wound healing
Pre GA fasting needs monitoring
Poor wound healing
GA required hospital admission

29

Which neurological diseases are problems for dentist?

Epilepsy

30

Epileptics suffer from recurrent seizures
T/F

T

31

What are the problems with epilepsy ?

Gingival enlargement and risk of seizure whilst in dental chair
Try to ensure usage free medicine

32

What is the consequences of gingival hypertrophy? Which drug does not cause it?

Needs good OH and gingivectomy can be performed in in permanent dentitions and used CHX gel to reduce inflammation

Sodium valproate

33

How can you prevent seizures ?

Avoid stress and direct over head lighting
GA preferred in children with poor seizure control
Removable appliances contraindicated

34

Which two respiratory diseases are common?

Asthma
Cystic fibrosis

35

What are the medical implications of respiratory diseases?

Dyspnoea
Risk of acute resp arrest
Chronic hypoxamia

36

What are the oral features for those suffering from asthma?

Developmental enamel defects
Dental erosion
Some steroid and bronchodilators may cause extrinsic staining and drying of mouth
Candidas
Adrenal suppression if on high dose steroids

37

What are the dental implications in asthmatic?

Avoid long appt
Rubber dam
Steroid prophylaxis consider
Good preventative regimen
Use of RA and GA must be discussed
Asthma attach in sugery: make sure have drugs
Staining to teeth: due to drugs
Dry mucosa
Candida
Immunosuppression for those on high dose steroids
Be careful with duraphat

38

What is cystic fibrosis?

AR multisystem disease affecting mainly exocrine glands
Thick mucous is produced and blocks airways and leads to malabsorption

39

T/F
There is chronic airway obstruction in people with CF?

T

40

What are the oral features of someone with CF?

Delayed dental development
Enamel opacitie
More prone to calculus due to ca in saliva
Decreased caries incidence
Oral ulceration

41

What are the GI diseases that can lead to dental problems?

Reflux
Liver disease and transplant
IBD eg crohns
Coeliac disease

42

What are the oral features for people suffering from GI diseases?

Developmental defects of enamel eg Hypoplasia
Delayed tooth eruption
Gingival hyperplasia
Enamel erosion, halitosis and high restoration due to relux
Periodontal disease

43

How do GI diseases affect our management as a dentist ?

Consult Gasteroenterologist
Use steroid and AB prophylaxis is necessary
Fluoride and good prevention