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Flashcards in Medically Comprimised Children Deck (44)
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What are medically compromised children?

Medical conditions affect dental care
Consequences of dental disease could be life threatening


T/F medically compromised children are high caries risk?



What are the two common cardiovascular diseases?

CHD and Aquired heart disease


What are more common CHD or Aquired in children?

80% of cases


What are the three types of CHD? And name the diseases for each category.

Cyanotic: occurs due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the lungs and entering the systemic circulation eg tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels and eisenmengers syndrome

Acyanotic:shunting (flowing) of blood occurs from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart due to a structural defect (hole) in the
interventricular septum eg. ASD, VSD, aortic and pulmonary stenosis, coarctation of aorta

Cardiomyopathies: IE, RHD


What are the acquired heart diseases?

Rheumatic fever and diseases of myocardium


What are the oral features for those suffering from cardiovascular disease?

- Increased risk of caries for primary and permanent
- delayed tooth eruption
- intrinsic tooth staining due to medication, diet or compliance


What are the aims of management for people with cardiovascular diseases ?

Eliminate the cause and risk of infection
Reduce the risk of bacterial endocarditis
Maintain good OH


What two medical treatment should you not offer to people upwith cardio disease?

AB prophylaxis Nice 2008


How should you manage pulpyally involved teeth in people with cardiovascular disease?

-extract pulpally involved primary teeth since vital, non vital and Pulpectomy are contra indicated
-permanent teeth Endo is indicated


What are the haematological disorders?

Vascular disorders: puroura, haemangiomas, Vit C def
Platelet disorder: thrombocytopenia, platelet function disorders
Coagulation defect: liver disease, haemophilia a, b and VWD


What are the oral features of those suffering from haematological diseases?

-Bruising of skin and mucosa eg petechiae, purpura and heamatoma
-excessive or prolonged bleeding following xla or trauma
-Spontaneous gingival bleeding


What are the medical implications of those that have haematological disorders?

Prolonged bleeding which may be excessive
Increased risk of infection
Anticoagulant consideration
May have other medical problems


How do you manage children with haematological problems?

Aggressive prevention
And liase with haematologist
Avoid extractions in general practice and multiple extractions done in hospital
Monitor blood values: should be more than 50000/l but prefer above 80000/l
Avoid extractions and do endo where possible and can be done without factor cover but do not over instrument
Avoid mandibular blocks and use infiltration
Avoid drugs that exacerbate bleeding eg NSAIDS
Use rubber dam


How do you manage an oral haemorrhage?

Identify site
Compress alveolus
Suture and pack
Apply pressure
Written post op instructions
Prescription of non aspirin medications


What is an immuniodef?1

Quantitive and qualitative defect in neutrophils, primary and secondary immunodef or acquired disorders


What are the medical implications for immunodef?1

Risk of sepsis
Opportunistic infections
Delayed wounds healing
Transmission of infection


What are the dental implications of immunodef?

Opportunistic infections: thrush, severe gingivitis, prepubertal perio , Recurrent herpes

Premature exfoliation of primary teeth


How do you mange immunodef dentally?

Regular reviews and prevention
Extractions or maintenance of carious teeth should be done on a worst case scenario during periods of immunodef
All mobile primary teeth removed at least two weeks prior to BMT


What types of malignancies account for 50% of childhood malignancies?

Acute leukaemias and tumours of CNS


What are the three management options for oncology patients and what effect have they had on survival?

Increased rates


What are the oral,features of potential maligancy?

Gingival swelling
Spon bleeding
Abnormal tooth mobility
Altered taste


What are the principles to the dental management of oncology patients?

Pre cancer treatment screen to eliminate all sources of infection
Emergency treatment should only be done in the acute phase
Ensure platelet levels are greater than 80,000 prior to surgery for haemostasis
Prophylactic antibiotics anti fungals and antivirals
If xla is required and neutrophil count is less than 1.8 * 10^9 then needs anti microbials
Delay any elective dental treatment until child is in remission or on maintenance chemo
Pulp therapy is contra indicated in the induction and consolation phase of chemo
CBA of endo in permanent teeth


What type of renal problems may we face as dentists?

Renal disorders : acute and chronic renal failure
REnal transplant


What are the oral features of people within renal disease?

Chronological enamel Hypoplasia
Intrinsic discolouration
Low caries rate
Gingival hyperplasia


What are the medical implications for people with renal Disease?

Often on steroids and immunosuppressants
Bleeding tendency
Poor wound control
Secondary infection
Osteodystrophy (hypocalcaemia )


How do we mange renal patients dentally?

Consult nephrologist
Postpone elective treatment until renal function restored
AB prophylaxis prior to surgeryb
Consider steroid cover
Extract pulpally involved teeth to reduce risk of bacteraemia


Which endocrine diseases can cause problems for dentist?

Pituitartu and adrenal disorders


What are the problems for those suffering from diabetes ?

Poor wound healing
Pre GA fasting needs monitoring
Poor wound healing
GA required hospital admission


Which neurological diseases are problems for dentist?