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Flashcards in MICRO Deck (53):
0

Acyclovir / Famciclovir / Valacyclovir

Nephrotoxicity -> Obstructive Crystalline Nephropathy
-> Acute Renal Failure

1

Aminoglycosides (2)

Interactions (2)?

- Nephrotoxicity / Ototoxicity
- Neuromuscular blockade

INTERACTIONS:
- Cephalosporins (Nephrotoxicity)
- Loop Diuretics (Ototoxicity)

2

Amphotericin B (4)

- Red / Green Color-Blindness
- Fever + Chills
- IV Phlebitis
- Anemia

3

Ampicillin

Pseudomembranous Collitis

4

- Azoles

Fever + Chills

5

Cephalosporins (3)

Interactions (2)?

(2nd Gen- Cefoxitin + Cefotetan)
- Vitamin K def + PT depletion -> Bleeding into body cavities
- Disulfiram-like rx
(Ceftriaxone)
- Inadequate biliary metab

INTERACTIONS:
- Cross-hypersensitivity with Penicillins (5-10% of patients)
- ↑nephrotoxicity of Aminoglycosides

6

Chloramphenicol (2)

- Anemia (dose dependent) / Aplastic Anemia (dose indep)
- Gray-Baby Sx

7

Chloroquine (3)

- Retinopathy
- Pruritus
- Torsades de Pointes / Prolonged QT

8

Clindamycin

Pseudomembranous Collitis (C difficile overgrowth)

9

Dapsone

Agranulocytosis

10

Didanosine (2)

- PAINFUL Neuropathy
- Pancreatitis

11

Efavirenz

CNS symptoms, incl vivid dreams

12

Ethambutol

Red / Green Color-Blindness

13

Fluoroquinolones (4)

- Rashes
- Dizziness + Headaches
- Tendonitis + Achilles Tendon rupture (Adults. Due to cartilage damage)
- Bone growth abnormalities + Leg cramps + Myalgias (Kids + Pregnancy. Due to cartilage damage)

14

Griseofulvin

Interaction?

Carcinogenic

INTERACTION:
-↑Warfarin metab

15

Hydroxychloroquine

Myopathies

16

Idinavir (3: NEPHRO)

- Crystallization in urine
- Hematuria
- Nephropathy

17

Imipinem / Cilastatin

CNS toxicity, incl seizures

18

Isoniazid (INH) (7)

*THINK: INH = "Injures Neurons + Hepatocytes"

- Hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients
- Sideroblastic Anemia
- Pellagra (↓Vit B6)
- Hepatitis
- Rhabdomyolysis
- SLE-like Sx
- Seizures

19

Ketoconazole

Gynecomastia

20

Macrolides (3)

Interactions (2)?

- Torsades de Pointes / Prolonged QT
- Acute Cholestatic Hepatitis
- Eosinophilia +m Rash

INTERACTIONS: ↑serum conc of:
- Anticoagulants (Oral)
- Theophyllines

21

Methicillin

Interstitial Nephritis

22

Methimazole

Aplastic Anemia

23

Metronidazole

Disulfiram-like rx

24

Nitrofurantoin

Hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients

25

NRTIs + NNRTIs (5)

- BM suppression
- Megaloblastic Anemia
- Lactic Acidosis
- Peripheral Neuropathy
- Rash

26

Penicillin (2)

- Hemolytic Anemia
- Rash / Stevens-Johnson Sx

27

Primaquine (Anti-Malarial)

Hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients

28

Protease Inhibitors (4)

- Torsades de Pointes / Prolonged QT
- Hyperglycemia
- GI intolerance
- Lipodystrophy (fat redistribution)

29

Pyrazinamide (2)

- Hyperuricemia -> Gout
- Hepatotoxicity

30

Quinine (Anti-Malarial)

Cinchonism

31

Quinolones

CI?

CI: (Relatively)
- Children

32

Raltegravir

Hypercholesterolemia

33

Ribavirin

Hemolytic Anemia

34

Rifampin

Rhabdomyolysis

35

Sulfa Drugs (3)

- Macrocytic Megaloblastic Anemia (incl BM suppression)
- Hemolysis in G6PD Def
- Rash / Stevens-Johnson Sx

36

Sulfonamides (6)

Interactions?

- Hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients
- Photosensitivity
- Hypotension
- Hypothyroidism
- Nephrotoxicity (Tubulointerstitial Nephritis)
- Kernicterus in infants

INTERACTIONS: Displaces drugs from Albumin (ie Warfarin)

37

Tetracycline (5)

- Photosensitivity
- Discoloration of teeth (Children)
- Inhib of bone growth (Children)
- Fanconi's Sx (EXPIRED Tetracycline)
- Esophagitis / Esophageal Ulcer

38

Vancomycin (3)

- Cutaneous Flushing ("red man sx")
- Nephrotoxicity / Ototoxicity
- Thrombophlebitis

39

Zidovudine

Non-Megaloblastic Anemia

40

NEUROTOXIC Antibiotics
(7: 3 Antibiotics + 2 Antifungals + 2 Antivirals)?

- Carbapenems
- Fluoroquinolones
- INH
- Terbinafine
- Griseofulvin
- Amantadine
- Efavirenz

41

OTOTOXIC Antibiotics (2)

- Vancomycin
- Aminoglycosides

42

NEPHROTOXIC Antibiotics
(6: 4 Antibiotics + 2 Antivirals)

RX (2: General + for Cidofovir)?

- Vancomycin
- Aminoglycosides
- Sulfonamides
- Amphotericin B
- Antiviral 'Nucleic Acid Syn Inhibitors' *EXCEPT Ribavarin*
- Idinavir

RX:
- *Hydration usually decreases nephrotoxicity*
- (Cidofovir TOX) Coadminister with IV saline + Probenecid

43

HEPATOTOXIC Antibiotics
(5: 3 Antibiotics + 1 Antifungal + 1 Antivirus)

- Macrolides (Acute Cholestatic Hepatitis)
- INH
- Pyrazinamide
- Terbinafine (abnormal LFTs)
- NNRTIs

44

Antibiotics that cause Arrhythmias (2)

- Macrolides
- Amphotericin B

45

Antibiotics that cause Hypotension (2)

- Sulfonamides
- Amphotericin B

46

Antibiotics that cause Flushing (2: 1 Antibiotic + 1 Antifungal Class)

- Vancomycin
- Antifungal 'Cell Wall Syn Inhibitors': -fungin

47

Antibiotics that cause Hemolytic Anemia (3: 2 Antibiotics + 1 Antiviral)?

- Penicillin
- Sulfonamides (if G6PD def)
- Ribavirin

47

Antifungal Class that causes Gynecomastia

- Ergosterol Syn Inhibitors: -azole

49

Antibiotic that causes Lupus / SLE-like sx

INH

50

Antibiotics that cause Pseudomembranous Collitis (2)

- Aminopenicillins
- Clindamycin

51

Antibiotics that cause Rash (6: 4 Antibiotics + 2 Antivirals)

- Aminopenicillins
- Carbapenems
- Macrolides
- Fluoroquinolones
- Tenofovir
- NNRTIs

52

Antibiotics to AVOID IN PREGNANCY

(11: "Countless SAFe Moms Take Really Good Care" + 1 HIV Antiviral Class)?

- Clarithromycin
- Sulfonamides (Kernicterus)
- Aminoglycosides (Ototoxicity)
- Fluoroquinolones (Cartilage damage)
- Metronidazole (Mutagenesis)
- Tetracyclines (Bone Growth inhib)
- Ribavirin
- Griseofulvin
- Chloramphenicol ('Gray Baby Sx')

- NNRTIs: Delavirdine + Efavirenz