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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (58):
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Reconstruction

Period of rebuilding which followed civil war when the defeated confederate states were readmitted to the union
Abraham Lincolns plan
Andrew Johnson took over plan was different

1

Carpetbaggers

Northerner who moved to the south after the civil war
Carry bag of carpet like material

2

Impeachment

The process of accusing a public official of wrongdoing
Andrew Johnson possibly but doesn't happen bc he wants to punish south

3

Sharecroppers

System where landowners give farm workers land, seed, and tools in return for a part of the crops they raise

4

Bimetallism

The use of both gold and silver as a basis for national monetary system
Instead of paper money

5

Bonanza farm

Enormous farm where a single crop is grown

6

Soddy

Home built of blocks of turf
Dirt

7

Populism

Demanding ppl have a greater voice in gov. & seeking to advance interests of farmers and laborers
Movement for ppl that needed political help (railroad workers, African Americans
William McKinely tried to deny populism

8

Strikes

Work stoppage intended to force an employer to respond to demands

9

Interstate commerce act

Federal government right to supervise railroad activities and created 5-member interstate commission to do so
Regulate railroads because of the high taxing the consumers

10

Sherman antitrust act

Law intended to prevent creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade

11

Vertical integration vs horizontal

V-company's taking over its suppliers and distributors and transportation systems to gain total control over quality & Cost of its product (buying out suppliers)
H-merging of companies to make similar products

12

Americanization movement

Education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture

13

Settlement house

Community center providing assistance to residents-particularly immigrants-in a slum neighborhood

14

Graft

Illegal use of political influence for personal gain

15

Patronage

Officeholders power to appoint people-usually those who have helped them get elected-to positions in gov.
Giving a friend a job even though they are not well suited for it

16

Pendleton civil service act

Prevented patronage
Had to take tests to be part of a job

17

Grandfather clause

Limit African American voters

18

Jim Crow laws

Laws enacted by southern states and local govs to separate white and black ppl in public and private facilities
Separate races

19

Plessy vs ferguson

Case where Supreme Court ruled that segregation of races in public accommodations was legal, separate but equal

20

Columbian exchange

Transfer beginning with Columbus's first voyage-of plants,animals,and disease between Western Hemisphere and eastern

21

Articles of confederation

Document that outlined the form of government for the new United States
Constitution

22

Monroe doctrine

Policy to US opposition to any European interference in affairs of the Western Hemisphere

23

Impressment

Forcible seizure of men for military service
Kidnapping Americans

24

Manifest destiny

Belief that US would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory

25

Secession

Formal withdrawal of a state from the union

26

Popular sovereignty

System where residents vote to decide on an issue
Ppl choose & make own laws

27

Assimilation

Minority groups adoption of the beliefs and way of life of the dominant culture
Forcing native Americans to ex cut hair

28

Social Darwinism

Philosophy that only the fittest will survive
Good food good service =successful

29

Dred Scott

Slave whose owner took him from a slave state ➡️ free state
Free territory=free man
S. Court ruled against

30

13th amendment

Abolished slavery

31

14th amendment

Prevented states from denying right and privileges to US citizens
Citizenship

32

15th amendment

No one can be kept from voting bc of race, color, etc.
Right to vote only men

33

Massacre at wounded knee

Unclear shot was fired
US soldiers demand native Americans give up weapons.
US soldiers kill 300 mostly unarmed native Americans including children
Wake up call for US GOV

34

George Pullman

(Helped cities branch out)
Built factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars on Illinois prairie
Created a cult (town) around building railroad cars

35

Andrew Carnegie

Entered steel business by buying a stock
Manufactured more than all factories in Britain
Make better products more cheaply
Very successful

36

Leisure activities

Bicycling tennis baseball amusement parks

37

Skyscrapers

Took up less space
Limited and expensive space was used wisely
Had a lot of steel

38

Scabs

Strike breakers
Replacement workers

39

Triangle shirtwaist factory

All exit doors had locked except one because of the fear of theft.
A fire broke out and many women died
Lead to union and labor laws

40

Monopolies

Complete control over an industry's production, wages, and prices by ex buying out all it's competitors
Total Control over business

41

Robber barons

When in control of the market he hiked prices far above original levels

42

Trusts

Not legal mergers, ran separate companies ➡️ one large corporation = dividends on profits earned by the trust (large corporation)
Used to gain control
Join together to create monopoly

43

Row house

A single family dwelling that shared side walls with other similar houses

44

Collective bargaining

Negotiation between representative of labor and management
(To reach written agreements on wages, hours, & working conditions)

45

Time zones

Used for railroad working hours
Eastern-Cali
Mountain-Colorado,Montana
Central-Oklahoma,Kentucky
Pacific-ohio,Florida

46

Tammy hall

New York city's powerful democratic political machine BOSS TWEED

47

Intolerable acts

Parliaments response to boston massacre and tea party by passing a series of measures like closing boston harbor and quartering act

48

The Alamo

Mission/fort in Texas where Mexicans massacred the rebellious texans
San Antonio Texas

49

Union

Workers Join together

50

George Custer

Split up forces bc he thought he was unbeatable

51

Battle of little big horn

Sitting bull,crazy horse, and Custer
Clusters men split up and ended up dead

52

Thomas Paine

Wrote common sense
Wanted independence

53

James Madison

4th president
Bicameral legislature-2 house-virginia plan
Wrote constitution

54

Thomas Jefferson

3rd president
Declaration of Independence life liberty and pursuit of happiness unalienable rights - never taken away

55

Homestead act

160 acres offering of land free to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of the household
Attraction of the west

56

Enforcement acts

Passed to try to stop power of organizations like the KKK
Say belief what they want but no violence
Stop power of violent groups

57

Railroads

Lead to openings off the west