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Flashcards in Midterm Exam Deck (87)
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1

Utilitarian

To be used for a function or purpose; for utility, as opposed to decorative.

2

Cuneiform

The earliest form of written language. Wedge-shaped writing developed by the Sumerians of the Ancient Near East (Mesopotamia, currently Iraq) around 3000 BCE.

3

Rebus writing

Pictures representing words/syllables with the same or similar sound as the object represented. Eg. Bee leaf = believe.

4

Hieroglyphics

A picture writing system developed by the Ancient Egyptians. Greek "hiero" = sacred, "glyph" = carving.

5

Recto

The upper horizontal fibers of papyrus; the "front" of the page.

6

Verso

The bottom vertical fibers of the papyrus; the "back" of the page.

7

Alphabet

A group of symbols that represent the elementary sounds of a spoken language. The word is derived from the Greek two letters Alpha and Beta.

8

Calligraphy

Ink writing using a wide flat pen. Comes from the Greek meaning "beauty writing".

9

Serif

Small lines extending from the end of major strokes of a letterform.

10

Baseline

The line which letters in a common word sit upon.

11

Legibility

The clearness, clarity (readability) of written words.

12

Capitals

Large, open square style of letter written for clarity and legibility (Latin: Capitalis Quadrata)

13

Stylus

Writing tool used to mark into a surface

14

Parchment

Writing surface made from the skins of domestic animals, calves, sheep, etc.

15

Vellum

The finest parchment, made of the smooth skins of newborn calves.

16

Codex

Book form developed by the Greeks around the time of Jesus of Nazareth.

17

Colophon

A publisher's emblem at the opening page of a book, listing the name of the printer, publisher, date, etc.

18

Movable type

Block letterforms that can be arranged and rearranged for printing.

19

Illuminated manuscript

A hand-written, hand-painted book decorated with gold leaf.

20

Medieval

The 1,000 year period between the decline of Rome and the early Renaissance. Also known as the "Middle Ages" or the "Dark Ages".

21

Ascender

Letter strokes that rise above the top guideline.

22

Descender

Letter strokes that drop below the baseline.

23

Celtic

A people residing on the islands of northwest Europe during the Roman-era. Celtic design is abstract and extremely complex, with geometric linear patterns that weave, twist, and fill a space with thick visual textures.

24

Ornamentation

Visual embellishment; decorations that often appear in the margins of a text.

25

Arabesque

A fluid, spiraling, undulating, or serpentine line or linear motif; inspired by the designs and writing of the Muslim world.

26

Typography

A term for printing with independent, movable, and reusable bits of metal or wood type (each piece having a raised letterform on the face).

27

Watermark

A translucent emblem produced by pressure from a raised design on the paper making mold and visible when the sheet of paper is held to light.

28

Motif

Recurring subject or theme, idea or design element.

29

Johann Gutenberg

Inventor of the first printing press. He was a goldsmith, developing the metalworking and engraving skills for making type.

30

Press

Based on the design of a wine press; a large screw lowers a plate and ink is pressed from the type onto the paper surface with enough force to make an impression.