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Flashcards in Migration From Norway To The US Deck (40)
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Who wrote "The promise of America" and what's it about?

Odd S. Lovoll: it's about the migration from Norway to the US with many viewpoints


Who wrote "Why did they leave?" And what's it about?

Berit Eide Johnsen: it's about the mmigration from Norway to America, looking at push and pull factors


How many people left Norway?

More than 900.000. Most if them to North America, but some few to South America, South Africa and Australia


How many left between 1865 and 1930?

780.000 - 87%


When are the four waves of emigration and how many left in those periods on average per year?

1866-73: 12.500 per year
1880-93: 18.000 per year
1901-10: 19.000 per year
1921-30: 8.660 per year


When was the pioneer phase of emigration?



How many returned to Norway later?

About 1/3


When was peak year emigration?

1882: 29.000


Where were the migrates mostly from?

The inner fjords in West Norway and the mountain valleys in East Norway in the pioneer phase. After that migrates came from all of Norway


What was special with the many that returned?

They brought with them American culture to Norway


Who left?

Mostly young, healthy men. There were more men leaving than women, but relatively more women in the later phases. The poorest couldn't afford to leave and went to Northern Norway instead. At the start it was mostly families, but around 1900 there were more unmarried men and women


Why did the first leave Norway?

For religious reasons. The first from Stavanger in 1825 where Quakers ans seeked a more liberal society


What other reasons could make America seem like a more liberal and freer continent?

Political and personal opposition in the Norwegian society. It was difficult to disagree with the majority in Norway


What is the theory of Thorvald Moe on why people left?

87% left because of demographic conditions and economic reasons. There where economic crisis, especially in the 1880's. There was a population growth after 1814 and there was insufficient amount of food and land. There was also an emigration culture in the south of Norway due to emigration to Holland in 1600 and 1700


What is the story of the first migrates in 1825?

They where 53 people who reached New York on a small sailing ship. On board a woman gave birth. Many of them where Quakers and Haugians. They new about America because Stavanger was a port with international connections


How did the information about America spread?

Through books and newspapers, but most important letters from Norwegians in America. Letters that often were written for anyone to read


Why where there shifting numbers of migrates year to year?

Because of shifting conditions both in America and Norway like bad conditions in Norwegian agriculture during the 1830's, the American civil war 1861-65, wWW1 1914-18 and the Great Depression


How was America attracting migrants?

Labour demand, 1862 homestead act and growth of industry, railway building, trade etc


How many Americans claimed Norwegian ancestry in 1990?

3 900 000 (2% of the American population)


What areas are famous for Norwegian Americans?

Minnesota and the Dakotas


How many emigrants left Agder from 1840-1960?

About 100 000


When and how many left at the height of migration from Agder?

60 000 left between 1880-1915


Why did emigration from Agder differ from the rest of Norway as emigration was higher in Agder between 1890-1920?

Because Agder had a shipbuilding and shipping based economy which was declining at that time. Agricultural and population growth was not as important factors


What is chain migration?

Migration based on large groups of people connected either as family or friends


What's the story of Johan Reinert Reiersen?

He was a schoolmaster in Vestre Moland and he was born there in 1810. He eventually wrote for Christianssandsposten about emigration to America. He emigrated to Texas and was unsuccessful in estabilising a large Norwegian colony. However, he convinced hundreds of Norwegians to migrate through his letters and publications in the newspaper


What's the story behind Elise Tvede Wærenskjold?

Born in 1815. She was a promoter of emigration to Texas who emigrated in 1847. She was the first female editor in Norway from 1846 taking over "Norge og Amerika" by Johan Reinert Reiersen. She died in 1885 and wrote a lot, earning the nickname the lady with the pen


How was seperation and divorce an emigration cause?

Divorce was extremely rare ans taboo in the early 1800s. The authorities demanded seperation for at least 3 years and mutual agreement to grant a license for divorce. If you travelled to America you didn't have to have an official divorce from Norway to mary again in America


Why didn't people emigrate earlier?

Because families didn't grow much larger before after 1814 as more children survived


Was the push or the pull factors more important in Norway?

The push factors were definitely more important


What was the consequence of many men leaving Norway conpared to women?

There where several towns and regions in Norway with an abundance of single women