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Flashcards in Postcolonial migration Deck (14)
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1

What is decolonization?

Independence from colonial powers, sovereign nations. A political, economic and cultural process in the 20th century, a collapse of European empires after 1945. Decolonization happened between 1945-1975 and the UK is particularily known for it

2

What 3 kinds of migration did decolonization lead to?

1. reverse migration: returning military, settlers, bureaucrats back to metropole -> homeland
2. Displacement migration: through conflicts, reorganization and upheaval in new states
3. Income-generating labor migrations: possibilities of income by migration to the Northern hemisphere

3

More detailed, what is reverse migration?

Colonial personnel saw their lifestyle fade away and returned. Many were creoles, born in colonies, they did not "return", they migrated to the metropoles. Native population that helped colonizers had to flee, they where mostly not accepted to migrate to "mother country"

4

More detailed, what is displacement migration?

For example in South Asia: newly emerging societies wanted to seperate ethnic/religious groups: muslim Pakistan and Hindu India: 4 million became refugees. Ruling native elites sent minorities out of the country: South Asians expelled from Kenya and Uganda in the 1970s

5

More detailed, what is income-generating labor migrations?

Failing new governments in former colonies pushed intellectual and economic elite out of the country. Clans and dictatorships who pillaged the population, exploited new societies resources. Many of these migrants decided to go to former colonizing metropole: linguistic reasons and cultural reason (cultural affinity of elites). A new North-South migration regime evolved: seeking jobs in industrialized world economies of the North that promised higher incomes

6

What did Filipino nurses think of work and study in the US?

They thought of it as desirable and prestigious

7

How did Filipino nurses end up in the US?

Through an exchange visitor program called EVP. They were to stay up to a maximum of 2 years before they had to return to country of origin

8

Why was Filipino nurses wanting to stay in the US rather than returning to the Phillipines?

Because the salary was higher in the US. In the Phillipines a nurse would only recieve 200/300 pesos monthly for six days of work a week, including holidays and overtime, while in the US you worked only five days a week and had holidays and vacation. On top of that there was little professional respect in the Phillipines. Working conditions in the US was better

9

Were Filipino nurses the only participants of EVP programs?

No, exchange visitors travelled from Europe and Asia as well. Also, Filipino nurses went to countries like the Netherlands and Germany

10

Why was there a exchange service in the first place?

It was to combat USSR propaganda by having people travelling to the US and returning to their country of origin and telling their people how amazing the country was

11

How was the Filipino nurses experiences with the US?

Mixed. Some saw it successful to promoting professional & cultural exchange, while others found it inadequate. Some categorized their work duties as exploitation

12

What happened to the Filipino nurses class status?

By studying outside of the Phillipines they enhanced their own and their family's status

13

How did the government of the Phillipines react to the program?

In a contradictory way. They viewed it as prestigious and potential-giving, yet they were in desperate need of nurses and many left for the US for good, and nurses was an integral part of nation building. There was a general nationalistic cry for nurses to either stay or return to the Phillipines

14

How was the Filipino nurses perception of their profession changed?

Returning nurses who had been studying in the US were trained for standards within the US, not the Phillipines which was considerably worse.