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Flashcards in Labour Migration Deck (49)
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1

When waa there mass migration from Europe to the USA?

Late 19th century - early 20th century

2

What are "free" wage workers?

Labourers who sold their labor power to an employer, signed contracts, could end contract, earned a wage, married, free children, less physical violence

3

What is class consciousness?

The worker class realised they belonged to this class, which was taken advantage of -> Marx ans Engels communist manifesto 1848

4

When does the European immigration surpass that of Africans in America?

1840's

5

When did European mass immigration really take off?

1880's

6

What effect had industrialisation on slavery?

Negative views towards slavery

7

What effect had industrialisation on free migration?

Dislocation, population growth that caused migration

8

What are the reasons for mass labor migration from Europe to Americas?

Demand for cheap and unskilled labor in factories etc. Growing populations and stagnant economy in Europe. Easier transportation -> invention of steamships

9

What are the reasons for mass labor migration from Europe to Americas?

Demand for cheap and unskilled labor in factories etc. Growing populations and stagnant economy in Europe. Easier transportation -> invention of steamships

10

What was thoughts of mass migration in the US?

The "natives", meaning the WASP's, had xenophobic views. Especially towards Italians

11

What was the views of socialism and anarchism in the Americas?

That it was an imported issue which is damaging the nation

12

How many Italians departed from the Italian peninsula between 1870 and 1921?

16.6 million

13

How many Italians entered the US between 1880 and 1920?

4 million

14

What was some characteristics of Italian migrants?

Unskilled peasants and workers, more men than women, but by 1914 there where equally as many women who migrated

15

What was the popular job for Italian women in America?

Seamstresses at home

16

What was special about letters to Italy from America?

It was usually written to be read by an entire community, not just a specific person

17

What did "free" labor migration transition from?

Bonded labor

18

What is nativism?

An anti-immigrant resent. The "natives" wants to keep their culture etc. Safe from the immigrants

19

Who were the nativists?

The first british migrants

20

Did all European migrants enter the US?

No, in fact many also entered countries like Brazil and Argentina

21

Who wrote "living the revolution" and what's it about?

Jennifer Guglielmo: Italians leaving Italy for primarily USA

22

What's the story of Lucia?

Her husband was in the states, working in railroad companies and other construction jobs. She received money from him to support the family inconsistently. She therefore did an important job to sustain the family. She saved up money to go across the Atlantic. When she came to New York she worked as a seamstress at home. Her husband died and she had 6 children

23

How was Lucia's story common for Italians?

Usually the fathers left first to work in infrastructure, trying to support the family. Eventually, the mother and children would cross the Atlantic to reunite. Often the mother would have a lover social status within industrial work although their support was more important economically. Many also returned to Italy

24

What can you call the places were women worked in the USA?

Sweat shops

25

What have often women who migrate been seen as?

Family migraters, when in fact they were labor migrants as they were crucial to the survival of the family

26

Why was not Italian women seen as labor migrats?

They "only" served as low-wage menial workers and caretakers of men as mother and wife. It jusitifed the subordination and dehumanization of work

27

Why did Italian women start to migrate?

As a result of global capitalism. The search for better work on a global scale

28

How did Italian women cope with global economic changes?

By turing to weaving and sewing. With mass-production this kind of work became tedious, repetitive and poorly paid. It did not offer any social status

29

What was women's work defined as?

Supplemental, so it offered only low-wage pay. One could also fire and hire simply at will

30

Was there less work for Italian women as their work was viewed as supplemental?

No, in fact only women in middle and upper class were able to avoid intensive psychical work