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Flashcards in Guest Worker Programs Deck (26)
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What can be linked to "free" wage workers?

Migration in the industrial economy


What are "free" wage workers?

The sold their labor power to an employer, signed contracts, could end contract, earned a wage, married, free children, less physical violence


What did the Communist Manifesto, 1848, do to migrant workers?

It served the consciousness of working class and class struggle


Where did Italian migrants go in the post WW2 period?

Mainly Switzerland and other North-Western European country


What is translocalism?

Migrants travelling back and forth between their village of origin and the towns of settlement, instead of transnationalism where one travels back and forth between national boarders


Who edited "Intimacy & Italian migration" and what's it about?

Loretta Baldassar & Donna R. Gabaccia: it's about the Italian migration to Switzerland


What was the post-war labor migration from Italy a part of?

A mass migration in Europe where mostly southeast Europeans settled in west Europe to help build the booming post-war economy


How many Italians lived in Switzerland by 1970?

Half a million


Did any Italians migrants return to Italy?

Yes, several returned


How was Italians received in Switzerland?

They where seen as a danger to the Swiss culture. Although, they were needed to fill a labor shortage


How did Italian migration to Switzerland change over time?

To begin with, Italians itended to make up money fast, and then return to their homeland. However, with economic instability in Italy, they instead established a secure existence in both Italy and Switzerland


Since Italians intended to do return, what did they do?

They maintained strong connections to relatives in Italy, and would uaually go to Italy on holiday once a year


What happened with the ideal of unification?

It was strong in Italians in Switzerland. Probably as a result of seperation of families because of regulations on family reunions. The ideal implies a sense of standing up for each other no matter what


What was holiday like for Italians?

They went back to Italy, bringing money and gifts both to an back again. The summer was most commonly the season they travelled, but also some did during Christmas. In Italy, the houses were filled with relatives, friends and neighbours. Traditional food was important


What was the result of long-term seperation?

It made Italians in Switzerland feel alienated with both Italians & Swiss


What can we conclude with regarding Italian migrants in Switzerland?

During the early years of migration, short-term residency permits and restrictive policies regarding family reunion led to regular travels back and forth -> translocalism


Who wrote "Migration experiences of Turkish women" and what's it about?

Ayse Kadioglu: Turkish women and their life during migration to primarily Germany


When did emigration from Turkey to industrially deceloped countries begin?

Early 1960s


Who left Turkey?

During the 60s and early 70s the majority was men, but more women came afterwards as reunion became normal policy


What was migrant women legally defined as in Germany?

Dependants, meaning dependent on a man. This had consequences in the labor marked -> low wages and jobs at the bottom of the hierarchy


What would often happen when Turkish women first came to Germany?

They would work illegally as they where waiting for work permits


What was Turkish women's work viewed as in Germany?

Complementary to the husbands work


What are migrants often viewed as?

Traditional, and they are expected to become modern


How was the experiences with migration for Turkish women?

It differed greatly. Those women who only had a nuclear family, not extended, was a lot more dominant in roles as she became the head of the household as a result of the man's absence. They were not supervised by the in-laws


What happened to Turkish women who migrated to Germany?

She did not necessarily become exposed to a lot of western culture as one may expect. While others experienced change in gender roles when men left without the women


What happened to the women who left their children behind with the extended family in Turkey?

They became alienated with their children, which some obviously regretted