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Who came up with the idea that body of water does not seperate, but instead connects continents and people?

Fernand Braudel


How many total entered Europe during the migration crisis in 2019?

About 100 000. The majority being clearly men


Of those 100 000 who entered Europe during 2019, how many entered by sea?

Slightly more than 85 000


Of those 100 000 who entered Europe during 2019, how many entered by land?

About 15 000 - 17 000


When did the migration crisis in Europe peak?

In 2015. Just in October that year over 200 000 migrants entered. Altogether over 1 million entered that year


Which two countries did most migrants come from in 2019?

Afghanistan and Syria


How many die or end up missing each year trying to reach Europe?

A couple thousand each year


Migrants who travelled through the dessert in Libya often experienced what?

They were often held for ransom and subjected to torture


How does not Braudel's theory on body of water apply to the Mediterranean?

As we see, the government in Europe actively tried to hinder migration across the sea from Africa. They did this by introducing massive surveillance and also basically watch migrants drown


Are all refugees mobile?

In fact no. Many refugees are inmobile as they stay in refugee camps for many years and are therefore not migrants


How many refugees were there in 2016?

Over 20 million


How did migration affect South Italy?

Many southern italians go north to find available jobs and as a result South Italy became less and less populated and became desolated. However, with migration from Africa the community in South Italy actually started to thrive again to a certain degree


What are one of the main arguments for a positive viewpoint on migration to Europe?

Most European countries are facing a looming age generation crisis. Since most migrants are young they can be a part of the solution on the looming age crisis


How did the European controll the Mediterranean?

They had advanced surveillance technology, but each country was assigned each their rescue zones. Meaning that when migrants where outside the zones they would not be rescued. Even if they where identified and a helicopter even flew over them


How did fishing boats react when seeing a boat of migrants?

They left as quickly as possible, and perhaps some migrant boats capsided as a result. They did not want to help the migrants because the governments had said that meant helping with illegal migration


What was one of the main reasons the migration crisis started?

The Arab Spring uprising led to a massive migration flow from Northern Africa to Europe


Do the vast majority of migrants head for wealthy countries?

No. Usually we have migrations within the developing countries also known as inter-periphery migration


How many environmental refugee migrants where there altogether in 1990?

25 million


What has often been the reason for migration in post-colonial African countries?

Involuntary migration as a result of warfare, selective stateside persecution, inter-ethnic fighting or other forms of violence


How many people perished at Europe's external borders in 2015?

Almost 4 000


What kind of contradictory reports do we hear about in the media on the borders of Europe?

Both violence and distress, as well as humanitarianism and human rights services


What kind of specific example do we have which illustrates the contradictions between EU and Italy?

EU's home affairs comissioner at one point proposed humanitarian visas, while Italy's EU presidency launched a Europe-wide crackdown on undocumented migrants. We see humanitarian and securitarian approaches to the issue


What did the UK government do in October 2014?

They refused to contribute to future search and rescue operations in the Mediterranean, since such rescues appearantly constituted a "pull factor". What followed was a public outrage against the government, especially from Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch


How did humanitarian initiatives come hand in hand with securative initiatives

For example, in Ceuta and Melilla the guards equipped with batons gave way to medical care by Red Cross for those migrants fortunate enough to breach the wired barrier


Which country has inspired other European countries when it comes to border controll?

Spain, since they were quite successful with their securitarian approach on land and humanitarian approach on sea


What did the government try to shine a light on in the media?

The humanitarian aspects, not the securitarian


What international laws did spanish sea patrols break?

They continuously crossed borders on sea. They "rescued" migrants in international waters and also in moroccan waters, overriding otherwise tense and militarized boarder


What was the justification for breaking international laws on borders in the sea?

They used the humanitarian aspect as justification as they so-called helped migrants


Why were migrants entering Spain across the strait of Gibraltar often taken to Ceuta?

Because Ceuta was an enclave of Spain, thus spanish government avoided law. If migrants were taken to the mainland they would be detained and set free, unless rendered deportable, after a 60 day time limit. However, in Ceuta they could be kept indefinitely


how did Spain collaborate with Morocco?

Spain could make sure Morocco rescued migrants and brought them back to Morocco. However, this did not happen often has Morocco was not willing to agree to this scheme