Flashcards in Settler Colonialism Deck (30)
What is settler colonialism?
People moving permanently to another area, thereby gaining foreign land (seizing property), and thereby displacing indigenous populations
What is acculturation?
Cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture. A merging of cultures as a result of prolonged contact
What form of migration/colonisation is settler colonialism?
It is permanent. It is a historical structure that destroys native populations and it asserts state sovereignty over native populations
Give examples of settler colonies:
North America = Great Britain
Australia = Great Britain
New Zealand = Great Britain
North Africa, Algeria = France
South Africa = Great Britain, Dutch
Libya = Italy
What happened in the southern parts of Africa with white colonial settlers in the period of decolonisation?
African activists fought for more participation in society. This inevitably lead to independence of Malawi in 1964 and Zambia 1965. In Southern Rhodesia white settlers became more radical and hindered decolonisation for a time
What has the manifest destiny done for settler colonialism in the US?
It has been important to legitimize the expansion of the USA westward with settler colonialism
What are the usual consequences of settler colonialism for the native population?
Usually violence and forced assimilation. Removal and relocation
What is the General Allotment act of 1887?
Dispossession of Indian lands (Indians lose the possession of land), that where collective and then split up to individual adult men who would then earn citizenship (forced assimilation and individualization)
What is the Indian citizenship act of 1924?
Giving Indians US citizenship without asking if they want it
How are the US robbing the identity of Indians?
By remembering Indians as a thing of the past, not acknowledging their current existence. Indians today become visible through stereotypical outside viewpoints like selling Indian costumes
What does "doing whiteness" mean?
It means to follow the maimstream in the US. Try to assimilate or be accepted into the WASP dominant culture
Why where not the Scandinavians considered a threat in America?
They where seen as shy and obedient, as well as dumb. They wouldn't think of rebelling
What was the Black War, and when was it?
It was between 1828 and 1832. It was basically mass killings by colonist in South Australia. They came close to annihilate the Tasmanian Aborigines
How is the living conditions for aborigines in Australia today compared with the rest of the population?
Poorer. More prone to violence, alcohol abuse, rape etc.
What was the dominant theory on race prior to Darwinism?
Racial groups where distinct and they evolved from their environment. The whites where at the top and blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy
What was expected by the British colonists in Australia?
That the indigenous population would die out
What was the colonists view on Australia?
That it was a vast unsettled land, no civilized settlement existed there
What was the white-Australia policy?
It restricted non-white immigration and lead to deportation of Pacific Islanders, Chinese and Japanese workers
What did colonial racial logic categorise indigenous people as?
How where the aborigines treated by the colonists?
There where many violent frontier clashes. The colonists had policies which eliminated and segregated the aborigines and eventually forced them to assimilation through child removal
What is settler anxiety?
Both denial and acknowledgement of indigenous sovereignty
Who wrote "Anxieties of belonging in settler colonialism" and what's it about?
Lisa Slater: Settler colonialism in Australia and the violence between aborigines and colonists
Who wrote "Scandinavians in Chicago" and what's it about?
Erika K. Jackson: Scandinavians adapting to and changing American culture
What was the Scandinavians in America seen as?
The whitest of the white
How did Scandinavians use the "discovery" of America by Vikings?
They used it to legitimize their settlement in America, their cultural dominance and felt pride
Why where Scandinacians acceptesd into American society?
They where seen as strong, obidient, able-bodied for work and non-threatening
What where Scandinavians considered over Germans and the Irish?
Cleaner and tidier
What is polygenism?
The idea that the human race are of different origins
What is monogenism?
The idea that the human race has a singular origin