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What does indentured mean?

To bind( someone, such as an apprentice) by or as if by indentures (contract). Contract labour


What is the Iberian empires?

Basically Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas


Why was there a lack of labour in Iberian America?

Because of wars between indigenous people and conquistadors. Also, diseases that killed the local population


How many of 3.5 million total population in Brazil were Europeans 1820?

About 1 million


Who were the majority of European migrants in the 1600s?

English and Welsh


What kind of unwanted people in british society could be send to the colonies as a servant?

The poor, convicts, homeless, religious deviants etc.


Why was indentured servitude developed?

To increase labour migrarion from England to the Americas


Did indentured servants and African slaves work side by side on the plantations?

Yes, but it was "easier" for the white to be treated better


What would a indentured servant get from their master?

Free food, clothing, shelter and passage to the Americas. Some few might have gotten some limited pagment


How long did the contracts (indentures) usually last?

4-7 years


What happened when the contract was concluded?

The person is set free. He/she might recieve a small land or some money and or sugar


Was the servants protected by the law?

In a way, yes. They could complain to the General Assembly


What happened if a servant broke a contract?

They could have their contract extended or worse, they could be sentenced to capital punishment


Where the servants allowed to marry?



When did indentured servitude end?

By 1820


Where did most of male servants end up?

Jamaica. Also, many arrived at Barbados in 1650s. Chesapeake was the most important access point to Virginia and the U.S


Where did men and women usually end up as indentured servants?

Men = more often the West Indies
Women = more often mainland America


Why did registration of servants usually occur close to departure?

Merchants were responsible for maintenance of the servants between registration and departure. The longer the wait, the more likely a servant would rething the decision


When was the highest numbers of servants each year in Chesapeake, and why?

Around July until November. That's because Merchants wanted their ships to pick up seasonal tobacco. Later ships hoped to pick up tobacco cheaper as they where unpacked and unready during high season. Also, planters preferred to have their servants come after the hazardous summer


Why did kids become indentured servants?

Parents bad economy, parents sending them away as a punishment or because of them being "bastards" and some were homeless kids


Who wrote "White servitude in colonial America" and what's it about?

David Galenson: it's about the life of white servants, their rights and places they ended up


Who wrote "Indentured migration and the servant trade from London to America, 1618-1718" and what's it about?

John Wareing: it's about white servants specifically from London and their life