Flashcards in The US-Mexico border Deck (31)
How was the borderlines before the Mexican-American war?
The border went further north. California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas all belonged to Mexico to begin with
How has the old borderline between Mexico and the USA become important for the political debate on migration?
Because Mexicans say that it's not they who migrate to the US, it's the US border who has migrated to Mexico
When was the Mexican-American war?
What was the result of the Mexican-American war?
The US won and therefore the borderline was changed in the USA's favor. Those Meixcans within the new US territories were granted US citizenship
What immigration law was in effect in the US by 1882?
The Chinese Exclusion Act
What immigration law was in effect in the US by 1924?
Immigration Act (against Southern and eastern Europeans)
What immigration law was in effect in the US by 1965?
Immigration and Nationality Act (neutral quota system, nummerial caps on Western Hemisphere)
What happened in 1986?
We had the "Reagan Amnesty", were 2 million Mexican immigrants had their legal status changed from undocumented to legal
What happened with the border between Mexico and the US over time which changed how Mexicans migrated?
It became militarized. It lead to Mexicans no longer being transmigrants circulating back and forth for work in the US, but instead seeking permanent stay in the US as it became increasingly more dangerous to cross the border
When was the first fence between the US and Mexico set up, and what was it for?
It was set up during late 19th century. It was set up to stop cattle from Mexico going over to the US without being medically cleared. These cattles brought with them diseases into the US which was not wanted
When was modern border control established between Mexico and the US?
In the 20's
How did modern border control change migration for Mexicans?
Now they came over illegally, as it was costly and time consuming to cross over legally
Was it illegal to employ illegal immigrants?
Yes. However, those farmes who do are rarely facing any charges for the issue. Instead, the immigrants find themselves much more targeted
What is method used most for illegal migration?
Not by physically walking or dragging oneself over the border, but by acquering a Visa and staying over the given time in secret
What was common for Mexicans?
To come for the US for seasonal work, and then return to Mexico. If they returned with much money they could buy a farmland or start a small business. Also, it was common to return for the christmas season at home
What changed after WWW1?
There was a recession in the early 20's. This lead to Mexicans being sent home from the US by repatriation
What chagned during the roaring 20's?
With a booming economy of the 20's the US once again locked to the south for finding labor to their industrial giants
What changed with the stock market crash of '29?
Repatriation once again became a thing. The US built up an anti-Mexican hysteria, feeling that the Mexicans was recieving public benefits on the expense of tax payers
How would Mexicans be forced home?
On trains, trucks, buses, ships and on foot, and they came in masses
How was the trips on board the ships to Mexico?
Horrible. The ships that were used were not passenger-ships. Also, Mexicans were shipped to random ports. For example a newspaper reported a woman screaming "Let us off!... I am just going to die, I have no money, no one knows me in that town in Mexico"
What was the common transportation method?
Train, as it was the cheapest
What did train companies do to try to make Mexicans leave?
They introduced special deals to encourage repatriates to leave. Fares could be reduced to 50% for instance
How did the Mexicans feel about leaving the US?
Some did not feel like Mexico was home anymore. Their dreams, hopes and lives were rooted deep in the soil of the US, no matter the fact that they never applied for US citizenship or clung to their cultural traditions and pride of their homeland
What happened to Mexican families?
It was common that they became split up as a result of deportation and repatriation
What happened to Mexican children in orphanages in the US?
They also faced repatriation. Often counties tried to find homes for the orphans, if unsuccessful they attempted to return the children to relatives in Mexico or transfer them to orphanages across the border
What did Mexican businessmen and craftsmen decide to do?
Join the exodus. Consequently, established businesses, choice property, equipment etc. went on the auction blocks for cheap prices
What happened to animals and plants owned by Mexicans crossing the border?
They were needed to be medically cleared before crossing the boarder. This caused much trouble for the repatriates and it was not cheap
What did often men bring with them over the border?
Items which was needed for reestablishing themselves in Mexico. These items were granted access for transport as Mexico desperately needed economic growth
How was the conditions for repatriates on the border?
Terrible. There were people who were sick, starving and dying waiting for passage or else