Mitosis, Meiosis, DNA Replication, DNA Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mitosis, Meiosis, DNA Replication, DNA Structure Deck (58):
1

Describe the events where chromosomes exchange segments

First synapsis must occur so the homologous chromosomes can get close to each other. Then crossing over occurs where chromosomes exchange segments. We can see this at the chiasmata, where crossing over hasoccurred. This finally results in recombinants.

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First synapsis must occur so the homologous chromosomes can get close to each other. Then crossing over occurs where chromosomes exchange segments. We can see this at the chiasmata, where crossing over hasoccurred. This finally results in recombinants.

Describe the events where chromosomes exchange segments

3

What is a Haplo

Haploid Sperm o

4

Haploid Sperm o

What is a Haplo

5

When does cell divide into approximately 2 equal halves during Mitosis

Cytokinesis

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Cytokinesis

When does cell divide into approximately 2 equal halves during Mitosis

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During which phase of interphase does DNA replicate

Synthesis= S phase

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Synthesis= S phase

During which phase of interphase does DNA replicate

9

During which phase does the cell prepare for division by rapidly producing proteins, and repair damages

G2

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G2

During which phase does the cell prepare for division by rapidly producing proteins, and repair damages

11

G stands for...

Gap

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Gap

G stands for...

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what are chromosomes?

what are double chromosomes

sister chromatids

1 set of genetic info=1 chromosome

1 double chromosome= 2 identical chromatids held together by centromere

chromatids in the double chromosome

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1 set of genetic info=1 chromosome

1 double chromosome= 2 identical chromatids held together by centromere

chromatids in the double chromosome

what are chromosomes?

what are double chromosomes

sister chromatids

15

In the following picture, point out interphase, telophase, anaphase, metaphase, and prophase cells:

Interphase: 1

Prophase: 2, 3, 4, 5,

Metaphase: 6, 7

Anaphase; 8, 9

Telophase/ cytokinesis: 10

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Interphase: 1

Prophase: 2, 3, 4, 5,

Metaphase: 6, 7

Anaphase; 8, 9

Telophase/ cytokinesis: 10

In the following picture, point out interphase, telophase, anaphase, metaphase, and prophase cells:

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A:

T:

G:

C:

ATGCGTACGC

T

A

C

G

Chose 1

TACGCATGCG

TTACGGCATC

TTAAAGCCTCT

ATCGATCGAAGG

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T

A

C

G

Chose 1

TACGCATGCG

TTACGGCATC

TTAAAGCCTCT

ATCGATCGAAGG

A:

T:

G:

C:

ATGCGTACGC

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Define Cell division

When 1 cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells

20

When 1 cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells

Define Cell division

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Histones

Protein around which DNA is wrapped around, so that it is organized and neat

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Protein around which DNA is wrapped around, so that it is organized and neat

Histones

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Chromatin

DNA + histones

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DNA + histones

Chromatin

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Define Mitosis

Centromere

cell Cycle

cytokinesis

division of genetic material of a parent cell into 2 daughter cells

part of a chromosome where spindle fibers attach

an orderly sequence of events that extends from the time a cell first arises until it divides itself

division of rest of cell and cytoplasm into 2 daughter cells along with organelles, cleavage and cell plate

26

division of genetic material of a parent cell into 2 daughter cells

part of a chromosome where spindle fibers attach

an orderly sequence of events that extends from the time a cell first arises until it divides itself

division of rest of cell and cytoplasm into 2 daughter cells along with organelles, cleavage and cell plate

Define Mitosis

Centromere

cell Cycle

cytokinesis

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Describe Interphase

cell growth

production of molecules and new organelles

by G2, two centrosomes exist and DNA has replicated

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cell growth

production of molecules and new organelles

by G2, two centrosomes exist and DNA has replicated

Describe Interphase

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Describe Prophase

chromosomes form

nuclear envelope disappears

centromeres exist

centrosomes move away from each other, mitotic spindle appears as microtubules projecting from centrosomes.

spindle microtubules can now reach centromeres

some attach to chromosomes

others attach to opposite microtubules

spindle moves chromosomes to center of cell

30

chromosomes form

nuclear envelope disappears

centromeres exist

centrosomes move away from each other, mitotic spindle appears as microtubules projecting from centrosomes.

spindle microtubules can now reach centromeres

some attach to chromosomes

others attach to opposite microtubules

spindle moves chromosomes to center of cell

Describe Prophase

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Describe Metaphase

mitotic spindle is fully formed

chromosomes are equator of cell

32

mitotic spindle is fully formed

chromosomes are equator of cell

Describe Metaphase

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Describe Anaphase

Anaphase begins suddenly

sisters seperate

Each chromatid becomes a daughter chromosome

kinetocores walk chromatids to end of cell

these microtubules shorten

microtobules not attached to kinetocores lengthen, elongating cell

34

Anaphase begins suddenly

sisters seperate

Each chromatid becomes a daughter chromosome

kinetocores walk chromatids to end of cell

these microtubules shorten

microtobules not attached to kinetocores lengthen, elongating cell

Describe Anaphase

35

Describe telophase

Telophase begins when chromosomes reach end of cell

nucleus forms

chromosomes uncoil

spindle vansishes

mitosis is done, after 2 nuclei born

cytokinesis occurs

36

Telophase begins when chromosomes reach end of cell

nucleus forms

chromosomes uncoil

spindle vansishes

mitosis is done, after 2 nuclei born

cytokinesis occurs

Describe telophase

37

describe the basis

the replication is semiconservative because the parent DNA strand is the template for the new DNA strand and the daughter strand is half new half old.

38

the replication is semiconservative because the parent DNA strand is the template for the new DNA strand and the daughter strand is half new half old.

describe the basis

39

how polymerase makes it all happen

first the cell must make enough nucleoside tripsophates before the S phase.

when DNA polymerase does its job, it breaks the 2 phosphates off of the triphosphate and then it canautomaticallymake the phosphodiester bond.

the remaining group of 2 phosphate falls off is called Pyrophosphate.

40

first the cell must make enough nucleoside tripsophates before the S phase.

when DNA polymerase does its job, it breaks the 2 phosphates off of the triphosphate and then it canautomaticallymake the phosphodiester bond.

the remaining group of 2 phosphate falls off is called Pyrophosphate.

how polymerase makes it all happen

41

Desribe Helicase and SSBs

The DNA must be unzipped to expose N bases by breaking H bonds.

The place where helicaseseparates strands is replication origin

Continuim is replication fork

SSB will prevent strands from reannleaing

42

The DNA must be unzipped to expose N bases by breaking H bonds.

The place where helicaseseparates strands is replication origin

Continuim is replication fork

SSB will prevent strands from reannleaing

Desribe Helicase and SSBs

43

RNA primase and DNA polymerase all other enzymes

DNA polymerase, enzyme that extends the DNA chain can only add nucleotides to 3 prime end of an existing chain

Thus RNA primase creates a starting block of RNA primers and polymerase starts adding nucleotides

DNA polymerase starts extending a nucleic chain by adding nucleotides to the primer. it uses nuceloside triphophsates, which cell made before S-phase. As soon as DNA is unzipped these triphosphates would come close to their complemantary ones on the parent strand. Polymerase just connects them. Sliding Clamp helps polymerase attach to parent and be more effecient and fast and increase processivity

RnaseH removes RNA primers and polymerase replaces them with real DNA strands

To connect DNA fragments and any gaps, ligase does it between Okazakis and at end points of DNA strand and uses ATP

Rna

44

DNA polymerase, enzyme that extends the DNA chain can only add nucleotides to 3 prime end of an existing chain

Thus RNA primase creates a starting block of RNA primers and polymerase starts adding nucleotides

DNA polymerase starts extending a nucleic chain by adding nucleotides to the primer. it uses nuceloside triphophsates, which cell made before S-phase. As soon as DNA is unzipped these triphosphates would come close to their complemantary ones on the parent strand. Polymerase just connects them. Sliding Clamp helps polymerase attach to parent and be more effecient and fast and increase processivity

RnaseH removes RNA primers and polymerase replaces them with real DNA strands

To connect DNA fragments and any gaps, ligase does it between Okazakis and at end points of DNA strand and uses ATP

Rna

RNA primase and DNA polymerase all other enzymes

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Somatic Cell

A typical body cell

46

A typical body cell

Somatic Cell

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Homologous Chromosomes

The two chromosomes in a matching pair of same size, same sequence of genes, and staining pattern.

One comes from DAD other from Mom

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The two chromosomes in a matching pair of same size, same sequence of genes, and staining pattern.

One comes from DAD other from Mom

Homologous Chromosomes

49

Autosomes

The remaining chromosomes,

The non sex ones

50

The remaining chromosomes,

The non sex ones

Autosomes

51

The Life cycle of an organism

The Life cycle of an organism is the sequence of stages leading from adults of generation to next

52

The Life cycle of an organism is the sequence of stages leading from adults of generation to next

The Life cycle of an organism

53

List phases

Prophase 1

Homologous chromosomes form synapsis and cross over and increases variation by exchanging segments

Metaphase 1 tetrads align

one homologous is towards one pole, other one is to the other pole.

Anaphase I: chromosomes migrate towards the poles but as sister chromoatids as a pair not seperated from each other.

Telophase I: same as is the mitosis

By the end it creates 2 haploids

Meiosis 2: Essentially the same as mitosios but starts with haploids and in the end chromatids seperated away from each other

54

Prophase 1

Homologous chromosomes form synapsis and cross over and increases variation by exchanging segments

Metaphase 1 tetrads align

one homologous is towards one pole, other one is to the other pole.

Anaphase I: chromosomes migrate towards the poles but as sister chromoatids as a pair not seperated from each other.

Telophase I: same as is the mitosis

By the end it creates 2 haploids

Meiosis 2: Essentially the same as mitosios but starts with haploids and in the end chromatids seperated away from each other

List phases

55

LIST WAYS HOW MEIOSIS CREATES VARIATION

IN metaphase 1 and 2 chromosomes align up variety of possible ways:

Equation to determine the number of possible ways: 2=homologous

^x=haploid #

2^x= # of possible ways

2^3=8 ways

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IN metaphase 1 and 2 chromosomes align up variety of possible ways:

Equation to determine the number of possible ways: 2=homologous

^x=haploid #

2^x= # of possible ways

2^3=8 ways

LIST WAYS HOW MEIOSIS CREATES VARIATION

57

how crossing over creates variation

homologous chromosomes cross over at chiasma (plural chiasma ) which results in genetic recombination which makes recombinant chromosmomes.

58

homologous chromosomes cross over at chiasma (plural chiasma ) which results in genetic recombination which makes recombinant chromosmomes.

how crossing over creates variation

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