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Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (30):
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1a. Define: Science

An endeavor dedicated to the accumulation and classification of observable facts in order to formulate general laws about the natural world.

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1b. Define: Papyrus

An ancient form of paper, made from a plant of the same name

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1c. Define: Spontaneous generation

The idea that living organisms can be spontaneously formed from non-living substances

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2. There were three lessons from the history of science I specifically mentioned in the text. What are they?

a. We should support a scientific idea on the evidence, not based on the people who agree with it.
b. Scientific progress depends not only on scientists, but also on government and culture.
c. Scientific progress occurs by building on the work of previous scientists.

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3. Who was Imhotep?

He was an ancient Egyptian doctor.

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4. Although the ancient Egyptians had incredibly advanced medical practices for their time, we do not consider them scientists. Why not?

They never used their observations to explain the world around them.

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5. Who were Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes?

They were ancient Greeks who were among the first scientists.

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6. Leucippus and his student, Democritus, and remembered for what idea?

atoms

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7. Who championed the idea of spontaneous generation and is responsible for it being believed for so long?

Aristotle

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8. Who came up with the first classification scheme for living creatures?

Aristotle

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9. What is the main difference between the geocentric system and the heliocentric system? Which is correct?

The geocentric system placed the earth at the center of the universe and had both the planets and the stars traveling around the earth. The heliocentric system has the sun at the center and the planets traveling around it. The heliocentric system is more correct.

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10. What was the main goal of the alchemists?

They wanted to turn lead into gold.

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11. Why don't we consider the alchemists to the scientists?

They were not true scientists because their approach was strictly trial and error.

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12. What was the main reason that science progressed near the end of the Dark Ages?

Science began to progress towards the end of the Dark Ages because the Christian worldview began to replace the Roman worldview.

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13. Who is considered to be the first modern scientist and why does he deserve that honor?

Grosseteste was the first modern scientist because he was first to use the scientific method.

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14. Two great works were published in 1543. Who were the authors and what were the subjects?

The authors were Copernicus and Vesalius. The book by Copernicus was about the arrangement of the stars and planets in space, and the book by Vesalius was on the human body.

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15. Although Galileo collected an enormous amount of data in support of the heliocentric system, he was forced to publicly reject it. Why?

Galileo was forced to recant belief in the heliocentric system by the Roman Catholic Church.

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16. Galileo built an instrument based on descriptions he had heard of a military device. This allowed him to collect a lot moe data about the heavens. What did he build?

telescope

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17. Who was Sir Isaac Newton? Name at least three of his accomplishments.

Newton was one of the greatest scientists of all time. He laid down the laws of motion, developed a universal law of gravity, invented calculus, wrote many commentaries on the Bible, showed white light is really composed of many different colors of light, and came up with a completely design for telescopes.

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18. A major change in scientific approach took place during the Enlightenment. What was good about the change and what was bad about it?

The good part of the change was that science began to stop relying on the authority of past great scientists. The bad part of the change was that science began to move away from the authority of the Bible.

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19. What was Lavoisier's greatest contribution the science?

He came up with the Law of Mass Conservation

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20. What is John Dalton remembered for?

the first detailed atomic theory

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21. What is Charles Darwin remembered for?

The Origin of Species

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22. What does "immutability of species" mean, and who showed that this notion is wrong?

The immutable of species refers to the mistaken idea that living creatures cannot change. Darwin showed that this is just not true.

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23. What is Gregor Mendel remembered for?

his work on how traits are passed on during reproduction (genetics)

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24. James Clark Maxwell is known as the founder of modern____.

physics

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25. What law did James Joule demonstrate to be true?

The First Law of Thermodynamics

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26. What is the fundamental assumption behind quantum mechanics? Who first proposed it?

Max Planck first made the assumption that energy comes in small packets called "quanta."

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27. What is Niels Bohr remembered for?

his mathematical description of the atom

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28. Einstein was one of the founders of the quantum mechanical revolution. He also is famous for two other ideas. What at they?

the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity