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Flashcards in Module 13 Deck (22):
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1A Define: Digestion

1A
The process by which an organism breaks down its food into small units that can be absorbed by the body.

1

1B
Define: Vitamin

1B
A chemical substance the body needs in small amounts to stay healthy.

2

2
(Look on page 341 in book)

2
a. salivary gland
b. epiglottis
c. larynx
d. trachea
e. pancreas
f. stomach
g. small intestine
h. rectum
i. pharynx
j. esophagus
k. liver
l. gall bladder
m. large intestine
n. anus

3

3A
(Look on page 341 in book)

3A
a. the salivary glands are part of the digestive system. Technically, they are not part of the digestive tract because food does not pass through them. They put saliva in the mouth. The saliva partially digests food, but it also lubricates the mouth and makes it easier for the tongue to form the bolus.

4

3B
(Look on page 341 in book)

3B
b. the epiglottis is not a part of the digestive system.

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3C
(Look on page 341 in book)

3C
c. the larynx is not a part of the digestive system

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3D
(Look on page 341 in book)

3D
d. the trachea is not a part of the digestive system

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3E
(Look on page 341 in book)

3E
e. The pancreas is a part of the digestive system but not a part of the digestive tract. It has two main functions. It makes several digestive juices that are squirted into the small intestine as chyme passes through the pyloric sphincter. In addidtion, it also produces a sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the stomach acid.

8

3F
(Look on page 341 in book)

3F
f. The stomach is a part of the digestive system and the digestive tract. It churns and mixes the food with gastric juices. The gastric juices contain stomach acid that destroys bacteria that might have been eaten with the food and helps dissolve the food. The gastric juices also contain some digestive chemicals that start the chemical digestion of the food. This turns the bolus of food into chyme.

9

3G
(Look on page 341 in book)

3G
g. The small intestine is a part of the digestive system and the digestive tract. It chemically digests the food and allows the nutrients to be absorbed through its lining.

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3H
(Look on page 341 in book)

3H
h. The rectum is a part of the digestive system and the digestive tract. It pushes feces out of the body through the anus.

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3I
(Look on page 341 in book)

3I
i. The pharynx is a part of the digestive system and the digestive tract. It pushes food into the esophagus.

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3J
(Look on page 341 in book)

3J
j. The esophagus is a part of the digestive system and the digestive tract. It pushes food down into the stomach.

13

3K
(Look on page 341 in book)

3K
k. The liver is a part of the digestive system but not a part of the digestive tract. It has many functions. The most important digestion-related functions are making bile, converting glucose into glycogen for storage, breaking down glycogen when the body needs energy, storing fats, and converting parts of the fat and amino acids into glucose when the body needs energy.

14

3L
(Look on page 341 in book)

3L
l. The gall bladder is a part of the digestive system but not a part of the digestive tract. It concentrates bile and squirts the bile into the chyme as the chyme enters the small intestine.

15

3M
(Look on page 341 in book)

3M
m. The large is a part of the digestive system and the digestive tract. It consolidates undigested food, absorbs water from it, and turns the resulting waste into feces.

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3N
(Look on page 341 in book)

3N
n. The anus is a part of the digestive system and the digestive tract: it is the opening through which feces exit.

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4
What function do we know the appendix serves?

4
Acts as a safe haven for beneficial bacteria when sickness can wipe them out of the intestines.

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5
What are fat-soluble vitamins?

5
Vitamins a,d, e and k

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6
Which vitamins (fat-souble or water-souble) are most likely to build up to toxic levels in the body if you take too many?

6 fat-soluble vitamins

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7 What kind of role do most vitamins play in the body?

7
Vitamins typically regulate the chemical processes in the cells.

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8
Which two vitamins can the body absorb without eating food that contains those vitamins?

8 Vitamins d and k