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Flashcards in Module 15 Deck (22)
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1Define: Gland

A group of cells that prepare and release a chemical for use by the body.


1b define: Vaccine

A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies that can destroy the pathogen.


1c define: Hormone

A chemical messenger released into the bloodstream that sends signals to distant cells, causing them to change their behavior in specific ways.


2 Describe the main function of each of the three systems you studies in this module.

The lymphatic system fights disease. The urinary system regulates water balance and chemical levels in the blood. The endocrine system controls various functions by releasing hormones.


3 What two kinds of basic structures make up the lymphatic system? In which of these structures is the lymph actually cleaned?

Lymph vessels and lymph nodes
Lymph nodes


4 How does the lymph get pumped throughout the lymphatic system?

The contraction of certain muscles squeezes the lymph vessels, pumping lymph throughout the system.


5 What gland produces tears? What two purposes do tears serve?

The lacrimal glands produce tears. Tears clean the eye of contaminants and provide a chemical relief for sadness.


6 What three kinds of cells in the lymph nodes fight infection?

T-cells, b-cells, and macrophages


7 What kind of cell in the lymph nodes produces antibodies?



8 What kind of cell helps the lymphatic system "remember" an infection so that it can fight the infection better next time.

Memory b-cells


9 Does it do any good to take a vaccine once you are sick with the disease the vaccine is supposed to fight?

It does little good.


10 Explain how a kidney functions. Start with the blood going into a kidney and end with it leaving the kidney

Blood enters the kidney via the Renal artery. It is filtered to stop the cells and proteins from getting into the nephron. The water and chemicals are dumped into the nephron, as they travel, cells absorb specific amounts of water and chemicals that then get put back into the blood. Any water and chemicals left over get sent to the renal pelvis and out of the kidney. The cleaned blood leaves through the renal vein.


11 What does a kidney do with any excess water or chemicals? Where do they go?

Excess water and chemicals are dumped into the renal pelvis and then travel through the ureter to the bladder. Eventually, they leave the body through the urethra.


12 What is the purpose of dialysis?

Dialysis is the process by which a person is hooked up to an artificial kidney when his own kidneys are not functioning properly.


13 Match: hypothalamus

d controls the pituitary gland


14 Match: thyroid

a produces hormones that regulate the basal metabolic rate


15 Match: parathyroids

g produces a hormone that destroys bone to release calcium


16 match: pituitary

e produces hormones that control many of the endocrine glands


17 match: adrenal

b produces cortisol, which causes the liver to release glucose into the blood


18 match: pancreas

c produces insulin, which enables glucose to enter the cells


19 match: thymus

f produces a hormone that stimulates the production of t-cells


20 Which gland is often called the "master endocrine gland"?

pituitary gland