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Flashcards in Module 8 Deck (22)
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1a. Define: Index fossils

Fossils that are assumed to represent a certain period in earth's crust


1b. Define: Geological column

A theoretical picture in which layers of rock from around the world are meshed together into a single, unbroken record of earth's past


1c. Define: The Theory of Evolution

A theory stating that all life on this earth has one (or a few) common ancestor(s) that existed a long time ago


2. How are index fossils used by uniformitarian geologists?

to determine what time period a layer of rock represents


3. Explain, in your own words, how the geological column is constructed.

by comparing layers of rock found in various parts of the world; using index fossils and the Principle of Superposition, geologists order the layers into one, big column that represents all of the earth's geological history


4. Is it possible to go somewhere in the world and see all major layers of the geological column and its fossils in one geological formation?



5. (See figure 8.2 on page 189) According to the uniformitarian view, which creatures lived on earth first: trilobites or fish?



6. (See figure 8.2 on page 189) If a paleontologist finds only fossil algae in a layer of rock, roughly how old does the paleontologist think the rocks are?

550 millions years old or older


7. (See figure 8.2 on page 189) A geological formation with only two layers of rock is studied. One has fossils of mammals only, and the other has fossils of fish only. According to uniformitarian assumptions, which layer should be on the bottom and which should be on the top?

the layer with fish should be on the bottom, and the layer with mammals should be on top


8. Why is the geological column considered evidence for evolution?

it indicates that early in earth's history, there were only simple life forms; as time went on, the geological column indicates that more and more complex life forms started to appear


9. Why is the geological column not really evidence for evolution?

it is not real; since it is constructed with assumptions, the evidence is only good if the assumptions are valid


10. What do the data from Mount Saint Helens tell us about the time it takes to form stratified rocks?

stratified rock can form rapidly


11. If you see a canyon with a river flowing at the bottom of it, should you assume that the river eroded the canyon?



12. On a geological scale, was the Mount Saint Helens eruption a major catastrophe? What does that tell you about the kinds of geological formations that could be formed in a major catastrophe?

minor; this tell us that a major catastrophe would most likely result in larger deposits of stratified rocks and larger canyons


13. What did the Mount Saint Helens eruption have that a major flood would also have?



14. What is so important about the Cumberland Bone Cave when it comes to the question of uniformitarianism versus catastrophism?

it is excellent evidence for a worldwide flood and is a major problem for the uniformitarian viewpoint


15. Do fossils require millions of years to form?



16. What is a paraconformity?

an unconformity that does not really exist in a geological formation but uniformitarians believe must exist because of the fossils found in the formation


17. List at least 4 problems with uniformitarianism as discussed in the text.

a. There are too many fossils in the fossils record.

b. Fossils such as Tyrannosaurus rex bone that contains soft tissue are hard to understand in the uniformitarian framework.

c. Fossil graveyards with fossils from many different climates are hard to understand in the uniformitarian view.

d. Index fossils are called into question by the many creatures we once thought were extinct but we now know are not.

e. Uniformitarians must assume the existence of paraconformities

f. Uniformitarians must believe that evolution occurred, and there is no evidence for evolution


18. What are the three problems with catastrophism that were discussed?

a. Catastrophists have offered no good explanation for the existence of unconformities between rock layers laid down by the Flood.

b. Catastrophists cannot explain certain fossil structures that look like they were formed under "normal" living conditions which would not exist during the Flood.

c. Catastrophists have not yet explained the enormous chalk deposits we find in terms of the Flood.


19. Why does the fossil record offer no evidence for evolution?

The fossil record contains no fossils that are undeniable intermediate links.


20. Why does the fossil record offer evidence for the idea that God created each plant and animal individually?

The fossil record contains no fossils that are undeniable intermediate links.