Module 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 11 Deck (26):
0

1a
Define: Axial Skeleton

1a
The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk

1

1b
Define: Appendicular skeleton

1b
The portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it.

2

1c
define: Exoskeleton

1c
A body covering, typically of chitin, that provides support and protection.

3

1d
Define: Symbiosis

1d
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.

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2
What three things make up the human superstructure?

The skeleton, the muscles and the skin.

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3
What are the two main differences between smooth muscles and skeletal muscles?

Under the microscope, smooth muscles appear smooth and unstriped, while skeletal muscles appear rough and striped. Skeletal muscles are voluntary (they are operated by conscious thought), while smooth muscles are involuntary (they are operated unconsciously by the brain).

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4
Where is cardiac muscle found? Is it an invoulantary muscle or a voluntary one?

Cardiac muscle is in the heart and it is an involuntary muscle.

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5
What is produced in the red bone marrow?

blood cells

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6
What is keratinization? What is it used for?

A process that hardens living cells. It is used to make the outer layer of the epidermis, as well as hair and nails.

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7
What to principal substances make up bone? What qualities do they each provide to the bone?

Collagen- flexible
Minerals-strong

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8
What is the difference between compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue?

Compact bone tissue is packed together tightly while spongy bone tissue has lots of space in between its fibers.

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9
Are bones alive?

Yes

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10
What is the difference between an invertebrate and a vertebrate? Is it posset able for an organism to be neither?

Invertebrate-no back bone
Vertebrate- backbone
Neither is possible because if an organism is from any other kingdom other than Animalia, it is neither an invertebrate nor a vertebrate.

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11
Are your arms part of your appendicular skeleton or the axial skeleton? What about your neck?

Arms- appendicular
Neck- axial

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12
What is the difference between an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton? What do we call the creatures with exoskeletons?

Exoskeleton-outside the body
Endoskeleton-inside the body
We call animals anthropoids when they have an exoskeleton.

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13
Order the following terms of increasing range of motion, then order them in terms of increasing stability: ball-and-socket, hinge, saddle.

1
Hinge
Saddle
Ball-and-socket
2
Ball-and-socket
Saddle
Hinge

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14
What purpose do ligaments serve in the joints? What about carilage?

Ligaments hold the bones of the joints together. Cartilage cushions the bones of the joints so that they do not rub painfully against each other.

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15
How do skeletal muscles attach to the skeleton?

Skeletal muscles end in tendons, and the tendons attach to the skeleton.

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16
Describe how the sternocleidomastoid and posterior triangle muscles on each side of the neck work together in order to tilt the head.

To tilt the head, the muscles on one side contract, while the muscles on the other side relax.

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17
Are the muscles in your stomach smooth muscles or skeletal muscles.

smooth muscles

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18
When it is budding, a sunflower will actually turn throughout the day so that it follows the sun across the sky. What is the term we use to describe this?

Phototropism

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19
What are the two main functions of hair?

Insulation and provide sensation.

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20
What are the two main functions of sweat?

Cools down the body, also helps feed the beneficial bacteria and fungi that live on your skin

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21
Why do your skin cells constantly fall off your body?

The cells on the outer layer are dead.

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22
What do the sebaceous glands produce, and what are the substance's two main purposes?

1 oil
2 softens the skin and hair and also makes it hard for certain bacteria to attach themselves to your skin.

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23
For the following animals, classify each as mammal, bird, reptile, or amphibian:
a. an animal with hair
b. an animal that breathes through its skin
c. an animal with scales
d. an animal with feathers

a. mammal
b. an amphibian
c. reptile
d. bird