Module 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 16 Deck (34):
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1A Define: Autonomic nervous system

The system of nerves that carries instructions from the CNS to the body's smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands.

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1B Define: Sensory nervous system

The system of nerves that carries information form the body's receptors to the CNS

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1C Define: Somatic motor nervous system.

The system of nerves that carries instructions from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.

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2 What are the two main types of cells in the human nervous system?

neurons and neuroglia

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3 Identify the structures pointed out in this diagram of a neuron (see page 420).

a. dendrites b. nucleus c. cell body d. Axon e. myelin sheath

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4 What do dendrites do?

Dendrites carry electrical signals to the cell body.

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5 What do axons do?

Axons carry electrical signals away from the cell body

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6 What is a synapse?

A synapse is a small gap between the axon of a neuron and the receiving end of another cell

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7 Explain how a signal crosses from the axon of a neuron to the receiving cell.

When the electrical signal reaches the end of the axon, neurotransmitters are released. They travel across the synapse. Once they reach the receiving cell, they create a new electrical signal.

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8 What is the function of neuroglia?

Neuroglia support the neurons by performing tasks that make it possible for the neurons to do their job.

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9 A nerve runs down the leg, carrying signals to and from the foot. Is it part of the PNS or the CNS?

The nerve is a part of the PNS

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10 What two main structures make up the CNS?

The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal chord.

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11 What two things discussed in this module protect the brain?

The skull and the cerebrospinal fluid protect the brain.

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12 What protects the spinal cord?

the vertebral column (you could also say the "backbone")

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13 What is the brain's gray matter composed of?

neuron cell bodies

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14 What is the brain's white matter composed of?

the axons of neurons

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15 What is the function of the corpus callosum?

allows the two sides of the brain to communicate with one another

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16 What does the cerebellum primarily control?

skeletal muscle movements

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17 What part of the brain deals mostly with higher-level thinking skills?

the cerebrum

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18 Do the two sides of the brain do exactly the same things?

the left and right sides of the brain do not do the exact same things.

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19 What side of the PNS does the left side of the brain control?

right

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20 What is the blood-brain barrier and why is it important?

A system that "insulates" the brain from the blood. it is important because many of the chemicals in our blood are toxic to brain cells.

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21 What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system do?

It increases the rate and strength of the heartbeat and raises the blood pressure. It also stimulates the liver to release more glucose in the blood, producing quick energy for the "fight or flight" response.

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22 What does the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system do?

It slows the heart rate and thus lowers the blood pressure. In addition, it takes care of certain "housekeeping" activities such as causing the stomach to churn while it is digesting a meal.

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23 What are the five basic tastes we can detect?

salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami

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24 When we smell something, what are we actually detecting?

chemicals that are in the air

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25 What is the function of the eye's pupil?

regulates how much light gets into the eye.

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26 What is the function of the eye's lens?

focuses light on the retina

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27 What is the function of the eye's ciliary muscle?

changes the shape of the lens, adjusting its focus

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28 What cells of the retina detect light?

the rods and cones

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29 What causes an eye's blind spot?

Where the optic nerve exits the eye, there are no rods and cones.

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30 Which part of the body has the most nerves related to touch: the fingers or the arm?

fingers

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31 What is the function of the ear drum?

converts vibrations in the air into vibrations of the ear ossicles

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32 What is the function of the cochlea?

It converts the back and forth motion of the ear ossicles into electrical signals that can be received by the brain and interpreted as sound.