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Flashcards in Module 12 Deck (30):
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1A Define: Producers

Organisms that produce their own food.

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1B Define: Consumers

Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food

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1C Define: Herbivore

A consumer that eats producers exclusively

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1D Define: Carnivore

A consumer that eats only other consumers.

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1E Define: Omnivore

A consumer that eats both producers and other consumers

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1F Define: Basal metabolic rate

The minimum amount of energy required by the body in a day.

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2 From where does the energy in most living organisms ultimately originate?

The sun

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3 Label each of the following as a consumer, producer, or decomposer.
a. mushroom
b. evergreen bush
c. worm
d. algae

a. decomposer
b. producer
c. Consumer
d. producer

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4 What is the name of the chemical process that converts food into energy?

combustion

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5 What does combustion require?

combustion requires oxygen as well as something to burn

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6 What does combustion produce?

Energy, carbon dioxide and water

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7 What are the 3 macronutrients?

Carbohydrates, fats and protiens

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8 What is the main thing macronutrients provide?

energy for our daily lives

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9 Do we need to eat more macronutrients or micronutrients

macronutrients

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10
Which is larger: a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a polysaccharide?

Polysaccharide

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11 Is glucose a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a polysaccharide?

Glucose is a monosaccharide. Most carbohydrates contain a lot of glucose

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What are the two basic kinds of fat? How can you distinguish them?

Saturated fats and unsaturated fats / Saturated fats are usually solid at room temp. While unsaturated fats are usually liquid

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What are protiens made of?

Long strings of amino acids

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In what order does the body prefer to burn the macronutrients?

Carbohydrates, then fats and then proteins (or amino acids)

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When protiens are eaten, they are broken down into their amino acids. If your cells are short on amino acids, what happens to the amino acids that come from the protiens you eat? What happens if your cells have plenty of amino acids?

If your cells do not have enough amino acids, the amino acids from the proteins you eat are sent to your cells so that your cells can make the proteins they need. If your cells have plenty of amino acids, the amino acids from the proteins you eat are either burned for energy or converted into carbohydrates or fats.

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Why is it important to eat either animal protein or a wide variety of plant protein?

There are several amino acids your body cannot make. Thus, you must get them from food. Without those amino acids, your cells would not be able to make the proteins that they need to make.

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Which type of animal has a higher BMR: an endothermic animal or an ectothermic animal?

Endothermic

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18 Which type of animal from the last problem cannot be active on a very cold day?

Ectothermic

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19
What do calories measure?

Energy

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20
Consider 2 men. While they sleep, they burn about the same amount of calories. However, the first man needs significantly more calories than the second in order to keep his weight constant. Which man is less active during the day?

The second man

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21
Jean and Wanda are essentially the same height, weight and age. If jean needs to eat more calories than Wanda in order to keep her weight constant, can you immediately conclude that jean is more active than Wanda?

No, you cannot

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22
When normalized by weight, which has a higher BMR: a horse or a mouse?

Mouse

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Where does the combustion of food take place?

Cell

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Why is the mitochondrion called the "powerhouse" of the cell?

The majority of energy in the combustion process is released in step 3 , which takes place in the Mitochondrion.

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How many basic steps are involved on the combustion of food? Why do cells do it in such a complex way?

1 three
2 gentle release of energy so that the cell doesn't burn up from this process